明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月15日 16:22:25

Science and technology科学技术Bees and insecticides蜜蜂和杀虫剂Subtle poison慢性毒药Evidence is growing that commonly used pesticides, even when employed carefully, are bad for bees据逐步表明,即使小心地喷施普通杀虫剂,也会对蜜蜂构成危害IN THE winter of 2006 beekeepers in America noticed something odd—lots of their hives were dying for no obvious reason.2006年冬,美国养蜂人注意到奇怪的现象,他们的蜜蜂成批死掉,原因不明。As the months passed, reports of similar phenomena began coming in from their European counterparts.几个月后,类似的现象也出现在欧洲同行的报告上。Mystified scientists coined the label colony collapse disorderto describe what was happening.困惑的科学家们给这个现象贴上了蜂群衰竭失调的标签。Since then, much brow-sweat has been expended trying to work out just what CCD really is.自那时起,为揭开CCD的面纱,人们不知道多少次抹去额头的汗水。Dying bees are a problem, and not just for apiarists.蜜蜂之死不仅令养蜂家头痛。Bees pollinate many of the worlds crops—a service estimated to be worth 15 billion a year in America alone.蜜蜂给世界上的很多庄稼授粉,仅在美国,这种务每年价值150亿美元。And there is no shortage of theories to explain the insects decline,Climate change, habitat destruction, a paralysing virus, fungal infection and even a plague of parasitic mites have all been proposed.尽管对蜜蜂数量下降的原因提出了形形色色的理论,如气候变化、栖息地遭破坏、麻痹病毒、霉菌感染,甚至还有寄生虫肆虐。But one of the leading ideas is that the bees are suffering from the effects of neonicotinoids, a class of commonly used pesticides, introduced in the 1990s, which are toxic to insects but much less so to mammals.但其中一个主导观点是蜜蜂正在遭受新烟碱的侵害,二十世纪九十年代人们引入这种杀虫剂,它对昆虫有毒,但对哺乳动物的毒性较小,使用范围广泛。Two papers published this week in Science lend weight to this idea.本期科学杂志刊登的两篇论文实了这种观点。The first, from a group led by Penelope Whitehorn and David Goulson of the University of Stirling, in Britain, examined the effects these insecticides have on bumblebees, which are closely related to honeybees.第一篇出自英国斯特林大学Penelope Whitehorn 和 David Goulson 指导的团队,他们检验了这些杀虫剂给大黄蜂带来的影响,大黄蜂和蜜蜂的关系密切。Bumblebees are less studied than their honeybee cousins, but they also pollinate many commonly eaten crops, including strawberries, raspberries and runner beans.和同宗的蜜蜂比起来,对大黄蜂的研究要少一些。但它们给很多可食作物传粉,如草莓、树莓和红花菜豆。The two researchers and their colleagues raised 75 bumblebee colonies in their laboratory.两位研究人员和同事们在实验室饲养了七十五个大黄蜂蜂群。They exposed some, via contaminated pollen and sugar water, to high doses of imidacloprid, a type of neonicotinoid insecticide.他们用受污染的花粉、糖水将一些蜂群暴露在高剂量吡虫啉的环境里,Others were exposed to low doses, or to no dose at all.一些蜂群暴露在低剂量杀虫剂的环境里,或者不加一点杀虫剂。Then, after two weeks of this treatment, the colonies were taken into the outside world and left there for six weeks, to see how the bees did.接着经过两周的处理,把这些蜂群放在室外六周,观察蜂的行动。All of the doses of imidacloprid, both high and low, that Dr Whitehorn gave her bees were sublethal—in other words, insufficient to kill the insects outright.使用吡虫啉的蜂群,无论剂量大小,Whitehorn士把亚致死量用在她的蜜蜂上,换句话说,不足以彻底杀死昆虫。Firms that produce pesticides, and the authorities that regulate them, are aware of the importance of bees to food production, and new products must be tested to make sure they are not fatal to helpful insects.杀虫剂生产厂家和管理他们的机构意识到蜜蜂对食品生产的重要性,新产品要经过检测,保它们不会对有益的昆虫造成致命伤害。But Dr Whitehorn found that even non-lethal doses of pesticide were bad for bees.但Whitehorn士发现即使非致命性杀虫剂也会对蜜蜂有害。Both the high-dose and the low-dose colonies grew more slowly than the undosed ones, gaining 8-12% less weight on average.受到高剂量和低剂量杀虫剂影响的蜂群和没有受杀虫剂影响的同类比起来长得要慢。体重平均降低8-12%。More importantly, the pesticides drastically inhibited the production of queens, which are needed to establish new nests each spring.最重要的是,杀虫剂强烈地影响到春季筑造新巢所需的蚁后的生产。The undosed colonies produced 13.7 queens, on average.未受杀虫剂影响的蜂群产生13.7个蚁后。Those given a small dose of insecticide produced two.受低剂量影响的蜂群产生两个,Those given a high dose produced just 1.4.受高剂量杀虫剂影响的蜂群产生1.4个。Worryingly, even colonies given the high dose may have got off lightly compared with their wild brethren.令人忧心的是,即便受高剂量杀虫剂影响的蜂群可能要比它们在野外的同伴受到的危害低一些。The researchers note that another British study found levels of imidacloprid in rape crops that were seven times higher than the food supplied by the researchers.研究人员指出另一个英国研究项目发现油菜作物里的吡虫啉含量要比研究人员提供的食物里的吡虫啉含量高七倍。Dr Whitehorns paper does not propose a mechanism by which pesticides do their damage.士Whitehorn的论文没有说明杀虫剂实施破坏的方法。But the second study, by a group led by Mickal Henry at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research, in Avignon, may shed some light on the matter.由法国国家农业研究院的Mickal Henry带队实施的第二项研究可能这个事情带来曙光。Inspired by previous laboratory-based work, which had suggested that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids damage honeybees memories, their ability to forage, and their ability to navigate back to their hive afterwards, Dr Henry decided to conduct some tests in the wild.先前实验室工作表明亚致死剂量的新烟碱会损害蜜蜂的记忆、它们的觅食能力和它们返回蜂群的能力,受此启发,Henry士决定在野外做一些测试。To that end, he and his colleagues glued tiny radio transmitters to the thoraxes of worker bees.为此,他和同事们将微型无线电广播发射机系在工蜂的胸前。These triggered a detector on the hive whenever a worker bearing one returned from a foraging trip.在工蜂觅食返回的途中,会在蜂群里触发探测器。Some hives were given realistic doses of thiamtethoxam, a variety of neonicotinoid, while others were left alone.给一些蜂群用一定剂量的阿克泰,其他的则不用,Dr Henry found that around twice as many treated bees as untreated ones failed to return to the hive.Henry士发现用药的不能返巢的蜜蜂数量是没有用药的两倍。That, mathematical models indicate, might easily cause a hive to collapse.所以数学模型更容易的显示出一个蜂群的瓦解。Colony club蜂群俱乐部Moreover, even if it did not do so alone, it could be a contributing factor.此外,如果没有单独做这些工作,这会是一个起作用的因素。Many researchers believe the label colony collapse disorder covers a multitude of problems; that would account for the long list of possible causes.很多研究人员相信蜂群衰竭失调涵盖了很多问题,可以列出很多原因。But neonicotinoids have the explanatory virtue of being a fairly recent development and also one which, as these two pieces of work suggest, could be a common factor in weakening a colony without actually pushing it over the edge.但是新烟碱在最近的研究和这两项工作中做给出了解释,它是在没有外部因素的作用下削弱蜂群的一个原因。The killer blow would then be administered by something else: a mite infestation, perhaps, or a fungal infection, or whatever else happened to turn up that a healthy hive would have shrugged off.以下原因也可以被视为蜂群杀手如寄生虫肆虐、霉菌感染,或者导致蜂群健康降低的其他事情。A paper published earlier this year in Naturwissenschaften, for example, showed that even small doses of neonicotinoids weakened bees resistance to Nosema, a common fungal parasite.今年早些时候自然科学杂志刊登的一篇论文说小剂量的新烟碱削弱蜜蜂对小孢子虫的抵抗力。A few countries, including France, Germany and Slovenia, have aly restricted the use of neonicotinoids because of worries about their effects on bees.包括法国、德国和斯洛文尼亚在内的一些国家已经限制了新盐碱的使用,他们担心这种杀虫剂会给蜜蜂造成影响。It would help other places that are thinking of following suit if more realistic trials were conducted in the future, in conditions that mimic nature as closely as possible in the way that these two experiments have done.这有助于其他地方考虑是否要在将来在模拟自然环境的条件和以上两个试验的条件尽可能接近的条件下更多的实际试验。That might be more expensive than the present way of doing things, in which tests are mostly confined to laboratories and are concerned with finding out how much insecticide is needed to kill bees outright.试验受实验室的约束,并且为了能知道多大剂量才能杀死蜜蜂,花费可能要比当前昂贵。But the growing evidence that insecticides damage bees in subtle ways means it would be money well spent.越来越多的据表明杀虫剂对蜜蜂的损害是慢性的,所以这个钱值得花。 /201403/279135

Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:Ever since I asked my sister, ;Vera,; to drive me to an upcoming surgery appointment,自从我要求我“维拉”开车载我来到即将到来的手术预约后,shes been pestering me for access to my doctor so she can question him about my health and stop him from doing the surgery.她就一直缠着我找我的医生,这样她就可以问他关于我的健康状况并且阻止他做手术。I told Vera that my doctor refuses to talk to her.我告诉维拉我的医生拒绝同她讲话。She doesnt believe me, but its the truth.她不相信我,但这是事实。He cant talk to anyone about my medical status.他不能对任何人说出我的医疗状况。Now she wont speak to me.现在她都不跟我说话了。I have begged her to forgive me, but havent heard a word either by phone or e-mail.我恳求她原谅我,但通过电话或电子邮件没有听到过只言片语。She means a lot to me.她对我意味着很多。I need her in my life, and Ive told her that several times.我的生命中需要她,我已经好几次这样告诉过她。Please advise. Bereft Sister.请给出你们的建议。贝拉福特。Dear Sister:亲爱的贝拉福特:It sounds as if Vera has been bossing you around for a long time and doesnt like being denied the opportunity to keep doing it.听起来好像维拉很长时间以来一直指挥你并且不喜欢被拒绝继续这样做的机会。If you want Vera to consult your doctor, you can give him permission to discuss your status with her.如果你希望维拉咨询一下你的医生,你可以允许他和她讨论你的医疗状况。If you think her concern is intrusive, say nothing more.如果你认为她的担忧是侵入性的,就什么也别说。We suspect Vera will eventually come around, although she wants to punish you a bit first.虽然她首先想着怎样教训你,但我们怀疑维拉最终会过来的。201309/256164

  When you experience something new, do you know what happens to your brain?你知道在接触到新事物时大脑会发生什么吗?Some of the neurons in your brain build new connections.大脑中的一些神经元会建立新的连接。My brain is rewired, as scientists often put it.就像科学家们经常做的,这个时候的大脑在重新装入信息。Our brains are always changing, in response to new experiences or as a result of learning new information.由于接触到新的东西或是获得新信息,我们的大脑一直都在不停的变化。That’s how we’re able to learn and remember new experiences and information.就是以这样我们才能学习和记住新的东西和信息。You got it,就是这样。but do you know what happens to your brain when you experience new thing after you have done phychol similar drugs such as amphetamine or cocaine.但是你知道在摄入安非他命或可卡因这一类药物这样的情况下,接触到新事物时你的大脑又会发生什么吗?The same thing ,right? or no?没什么不同?对吗? 201312/267330


  Last time we talked about the false belief that evolutionary theory says human beings descended from monkeys.上次我们谈论到了关于人类进化论的错误观念:人类是猴子演变而来的。In fact, evolution says that both human beings and monkeys descended from a common ancestor that existed about thirty million years ago.其实,进化论阐述的是人类和猴子都是同一个祖先的后裔。而这个祖先存在于三千万年前。Across time, species can give rise to otherspecies, which can in turn give rise to others.斗转星移,物种会产生其他的物种,这样依次发展又会产生别的不同物种。So, while its not true that human beings evolved from monkeys, if you stretch your thinking youcan see how monkeys can be considered relatives of ours.因此,尽管人类从猴子演变而来不是真的,但如果你发散思维,就会明白为什么会说猴子是我们的近亲。After all, I call someone my cousin if she and I have a common ancestor.终究,我把和我有共同祖先的人叫做表兄。If we could keep recordsacross millions of years, we might want to count monkeys and apes as our cousins too.假如我们能够备存纪录数百万年之久,可能我们会把猴子和猿也视作表兄。But wait a minute!且慢!If thats true, then arent we also related to the ancestors of that common ancestor?如果真的是这样,那我们的祖先不是也有着共同祖先?I mean, my cousin and I both share a grandparent.我的意思是,我和我的表是同一个祖母。But the family tree doesnt stopthere.但是家族谱并不会止于此。We also share that grandparents grandparents.我们也是同一个曾曾曾祖母。What about the species that diverged togive rise to the common ancestor of monkeys and humans?而那些分散发展成猴子和人类共同祖先的物种呢?If you see where this is leading, youll have understood something rather wonderful about life onearth.如果想知道哪儿是起头,就得明白和地球生物有关的一些非常奇妙的事情。In fact, if you take the longest possible perspective — now looking back about four billionyears-you will find that every life form on earth is related to every other.实际上,如果你从长远的角度来看的话—回顾到四十亿年前,你就会发现地球上的所有生物都是息息相关的。We all share commonancestors, because all life came from the first self-reproducing, single-celled organism that existedin the oceans of primal earth.我们有着共同的祖先,因为所有的生命都来源于原始地球上第一个存在于海洋中自我复制的单细胞有机体。Yes, that tree outside is your relative, as is every bug and blade of grass.是的,外面那棵树是你的亲戚。同样的,所有的虫子和青草都是。Invite them in for dinner,why dont you?邀请它们共进晚餐吧!为什么不呢? 201409/326636

  Business商业报道Eataly意大利美食天堂Let them eat truffles请他们吃松露巧克力糖Italian food for the discerning—and loaded意大利美食专为识货的行家打造FOR cognoscenti, the height of Italian taste these days is not Prada or Maserati, but a food market called Eataly.对《鉴赏家》这本杂志而言,近日来意大利品味的高度不再是普拉达或玛莎拉蒂,而是一个名为Eataly的美食超市。Fruit and vegetables are piled artfully in barrows and crates.水果和蔬菜有序又极具艺术气息地摆放在手推车和板条箱上,Cornucopias of pastas and pestos and peperoncini lie on shelves.架子上是满满的通心粉、香蒜沙司和辣椒酱。Groups of little tables tempt shoppers to stop and sample the salamis, or some of the eye-wateringly expensive truffles for which its founders home town ofAlba, inPiedmont, is famous.一张张的小桌子吸引着消费者驻足品尝意大利腊肠以及让人垂涎三尺的松露巧克力糖,后者不仅仅昂贵,也是该公司缔造者的故乡—位于皮埃蒙特的阿尔巴—著名的特产。Oscar Farinetti set up the first Eataly in 2007, in an old vermouth warehouse in the Lingotto district of Turin.2007年奥斯卡·法立内迪在都灵的林格托一家破旧的苦艾酒仓库建立首家Eataly。His 21st is due to open on December 2nd inChicago.他的第21家分店将于12月2日在芝加哥正式运营。When Eataly came toManhattanin 2010, the media were still reporting queues around the block two weeks later.2010年,当Eataly进入曼哈顿两周后,媒体依然在竞相报道依然包围着该美食城的消费者队伍。Perhaps one of Mr Farinettis American partners—Mario Batali, a well-knownNew Yorkchef—had something to do with that.或许这与法立内迪的美国合伙人之一的马利欧·巴塔利这位著名的纽约大厨有关。But inTokyotoo, after a slow start, people have taken Eataly to their hearts and wallets.然而在东京,渐渐地,Eataly走进了人们的心里,人们甘愿掏钱品尝意大利美食。Mr Farinetti is a serial entrepreneur who had the good sense to sell his previous electrical-retailing business before the bottom fell out of it, and switch to a more promising sector.法立内迪曾多次创业,他有敏锐的商业嗅觉,之前他经营电器零售业务。在这项业务坠入谷底前,他将所有业务转向更有潜力的行业。But he is also a fully paid-up member of the Slow Food movement founded by Carlo Petrini, his friend and fellow Piedmontese.然而他也是慢食运动的正式会员,这一运动是他皮埃蒙特的朋友卡勒·佩特里尼倡导的。Under Mr Petrinis guidance Eataly stocks the produce of several small firms, such as Gragnano durum-wheat pasta, wines from Piedmont and theVenetoand oil from westernLiguria.在佩特里尼的指导下,Eataly采购许多小公司的产品,比如格拉南诺的硬质小麦通心粉,皮埃蒙特和威尼托的酒以及西部利古利亚的食用油。Information cards tell shoppers who produced what and how.产品的信息卡上写着产品品名、生产者及生产过程,消费者一看就知道。The idea, says Mr Farinetti, is not just selling food but “increasing the percentage of people who eat with awareness, choosing high-quality products and paying special attention to the source and processing of raw materials.”法立内迪说,“这个主意不仅仅只是出售商品,而是让更多的消费者有意识地购买食物,挑选高质量的产品,更加关注食品原材料的产地和加工过程。”It works.这确实有效。Turnover this year is likely to be 300m, up by 30% from 2012, thanks to the opening of new shops.由于新店开张,今年的营业额有望达到3亿欧元,较2012年上涨30%。More are planned by 2017, acrossAmericaand inLondonandParis.截止2017年,更多的分店将会在美国各地、伦敦及巴黎开张。Sales have risen in existing stores, too, by 4%-plus inItaly, 5% inNew Yorkand 10% inJapan.已开张的份店的销售额也都在上涨,意大利涨幅超过4个百分点,纽约5个百分点,日本10个百分点。Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation are almost 20% of revenue inNew Yorkand 15% inTurin.除去息税摊销折旧前的收益,纽约的几乎占总收益的20%,都灵的占15%。Eataly provides its customers with gorgeous surroundings—less combative than at Harrods in London, less oppressively wholesome than at Whole Foods Markets, an American chain—in which they might imagine Gianmaria and Francesca weeding the tomato plants or ting the grapes.Eataly为其消费者营造极好的消费环境—不像伦敦的哈罗兹百货公司那般斗志昂扬,也不如美国连锁全食市场那样琳琅满目目不暇接,在那儿人们都可能想象Gianmaria 和Francesca正在为番茄苗除草或者正在踩葡萄出汁。Mr Farinetti is selling them a seductive image ofItalyitself.法立内迪向其消费者营销的实际上是意大利这个意象所代表的国家的魅力。 /201312/267748The South China Sea南海Not the usual drill非一般钻井Tensions mount dangerously in contested waters争议水域局势紧张BARACK OBAMAS tour of four countries in Asia late last month was supposed to reassure Americas friends of its commitment to the region, and to deter China from provocations in its many territorial disputes. In the South China Sea, at least, the tactic has not worked. Chinas quarrel with Vietnam, which had been dormant in recent months, flared up dangerously this week. And a new front opened in Chinas continuing tussle with the Philippines over different parts of the sea.奥巴马上月末访问亚洲四国,本应令盟友对其“重返亚洲”的承诺安心,并阻止中国挑起其诸多领土争端。但至少在南海,这个战略不起作用。中国与越南的纠纷缓和数月后,本周再度剑拔弩张。此外,中国与菲律宾又因持续不断的主权争议另一海域发生新冲突。Vietnam first. China sent its new billion rig, the Haiyang Shiyou 981, to drill for oil in waters that Vietnam regards as inside the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) it is entitled to under the international law of the sea. Vietnam demanded that the rig be withdrawn and sent nearly 30 coastguard vessels to try to stop it starting work. A protective Chinese flotilla repulsed them, ramming one and firing water cannon at others. China has declared a three-mile exclusion zone around the rig, larger than is normal.越南首当其冲。中国运送新的钻井平台“海洋石油981”进行海上石油钻探,平台价值10亿美元。越南认为中方作业区域位于其依国际海事法拥有的专属经济区内,要求中方撤离钻井平台,并派出近30艘海警船试图制止中方再度作业。中国护卫舰队驱逐了越方海警船,撞击一艘并向其余船只发射水炮。此前中方宣布“海洋石油981”钻井平台半径3海里范围为禁航区,这大于正常值。It insists the rig is operating in its own waters. It appears to claim that the area is within the EEZ attached to an island chain it controls, which China calls Xisha and the Vietnamese Hoang Sa. The islands, the Paracels in English, have been occupied by China since 1974, when it drove out the former South Vietnamese regime. Vietnam still regards them as part of its territory.中方坚持钻井平台的作业区完全位于本国海域,声称这片区域在其专属经济区内,连接着由中方控制的岛链(中国称之为西沙群岛,越南则称黄沙群岛)。这片岛链英语名称为Paracel,中国于1974年赶走岛上的越南政权后便占领了这里。但是越南仍视之为自己的领土。As always, Chinas claim is hazy. It produces maps with a vast U-shaped area covering almost the entire South China Sea, enclosed in a “nine-dash line”, which it says gives it historic rights to the land inside. This uncertainty has created tension in various parts of the sea, where the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan also have claims. The dispute with the Philippines is the most active. That, too, intensified this week when the Philippines arrested 15 Chinese fishermen for poaching hundreds of endangered turtles in what it sees as its own waters.中国的主张一如既往的含糊。它制作地图时划出一片巨大的U型地带,用九段虚线将几乎整个南海划在国土范围内,并称自古以来对里面的土地拥有主权。这个不明确性在各海域形成紧张气氛,包括菲律宾、马来西亚、文莱与台湾等国家和地区。其中与菲律宾的冲突最频繁。本周菲律宾扣留了15名中国渔民,理由是这些渔民在菲律宾视之为领海的地方偷捕濒危海龟,紧张局势再度升级。Mr Obamas trip was marked by a beefing-up of Americas security ties with the Philippines, but not by an explicit American commitment to back it in the South China Sea. Vietnam is not an American ally, although relations have warmed in recent years, partly because of Vietnams fear of China. America has condemned Chinas “provocative” drilling plans but may prove powerless to thwart them. That could undo whatever progress Mr Obama made on the reassurance front.奥巴马此行被认为加强了美国与菲律宾的安全关系,而非美国重返南海的明确承诺。尽管近年美越关系好转,但越南并不是美国的盟友。部分原因是越南对中国的担心。美国谴责了中国的“挑衅性”钻探计划,但或许无法阻止该计划实行。那可能使得奥巴马在安抚盟友方面取得的进展功亏一篑。 内容来自:201406/306097Don:Hey, Yale. Would you rather be bitten by a saber-toothed tiger or a modern day tiger?唐:嘿,雅艾尔。你宁愿被剑齿虎咬还是被现代的老虎咬?Yael:Neither, of course. But if I have to pick, I supposed I choose the modern tiger. Since the saber-toothed tiger massive fangs.雅艾尔:都不愿意。如果一定要选的话,我情愿选现代的老虎。因为剑齿虎长有巨大的獠牙。Don:Well, you may be surprised to learn that paleontologists now think that despite their huge, fearsome looking canine teeth, the prehistoric American sabercat, Smilodon fatalis, had a bite force only about one-third as strong as modern big cats.唐:不过,古生物学家认为除了巨大的、长相可怕的犬齿之外,美国史前剑齿虎 Smilodon fatalis 的咬合力只有现代大猫的三分之一,知道这一点你可能会觉得很惊讶。Yael:How can they told that from fossilized bones?雅艾尔:他们是如何根据骨头化石得知咬合力的?Don:They used very fine CT scans of the skull, jaw and neck bones to create a highly detailed 3 D computer model. Then using careful analysis of the size and placement of muscle attachment points and mathematical modeling they were able to calculate the power of the jaw muscles and the bite force of the now extinct sabercats. This was the most detailed computer model ever created for a vertebrate.唐:他们用精密的CT扫描仪扫描头骨,颚和颈椎骨,用来建立一个高度精确的3D电脑模型。然后仔细分析肌肉附着点的尺寸和位置,利用这些数据进行数学建模,这样他们才能够计算出目前已经灭绝的剑齿虎的颚肌的力量和咬合力。这是人们迄今建立的最精确的脊椎动物电脑模型。Yael:Neat! So if they had such a wimpy bite, whats with the huge fangs?雅艾尔:做得好!那么如果它们的咬合力小,那么这些獠牙还有何用?Don:The function of the sabercats eight inch teeth is one of the longest running debates in paleontology. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the sabercats brought down and subdued large prey, like mammoths, with their strong forelimbs. Once the prey was safely restrained on the ground, sabercats used their large fangs to pierce through the thick hide on the neck of their quarry. In contrast, modern day big cats use their more powerful jaws to bite the neck of their prey for an extended period to subdue them by asphyxiation.唐:剑齿虎的门牙有八英尺长,至于它的作用至今仍是古生物学届最持久的争议话题之一。这项研究的结果持这种假说:剑齿虎使用强壮的前肢扑倒和制像猛犸象这样的大型猎物。一旦猎物被彻底制在地上,剑齿虎便用它那巨大的獠牙刺穿猎物脖子上的厚皮。相反,现代的大猫则利用更锋利的颚来长时间咬住猎物的脖子,直到它们窒息而亡。Yael:Yikes!I think Ill pass on being bitten by either a sabercat or a modern day tiger.雅艾尔:呀!我想在剑齿虎或者现代老虎咬我的时候,我就会不行了。Don:Wise choice.唐:明智的选择。原文译文属!201304/233270

  Even if you havent touched a piano in years, if you suffered through music lessons as a kid you may have benefited from those lessons in ways you wouldnt expect.即使你已经很久没有弹钢琴,但只要你小时候学过钢琴,你就能在各个意想不到的方面受益于这些钢琴课。When you train on a musical instrument your brain is stimulated and changes and develops as a result.当你在训练一种乐器时,大脑受到刺激而变化生长。Because the parts of the brain are interconnected this stimulation doesnt affect musical ability only.由于大脑的各个部分是相互连接的,这种刺激不会只影响到音乐能力。Psychologists have discovered that the stimulation musical training enacts on the left temporal region of your brain enhances verbal memory.心理学家还发现,这种音乐刺激训练担当大脑的左颞区可以提高非文字记忆。People with musical training are significantly better at recalling words from a list and learning new words.接受过音乐训练的人能够更容易记住单词,学习新的单词也更容易。Whats more, the longer the duration of musical training, the better the verbal memory.更重要的是,音乐训练的时间越久,非文字记忆能力越强。So while children who study music for two years demonstrate better verbal memory than children who have not studied music, children who continue to study music continue to improve their verbal memory.因此,学过两年音乐的孩子,他们的非文字记忆比没学过音乐的孩子要强得多,而继续学习音乐孩子的记忆会随之提高。The good news for those of us who trained on musicalinstruments but quit at some point is that we dont seem to lose the verbal benefits we gain from this training.有个好消息,对于那些学过乐器后来又放弃的同学,你们并不会失去这种训练的好处。Scientists are particularly interested in what this suggests about the interconnectedness of thebrain and thus the predictability of the effects of stimulation to a brain area on cognitive functions located in that area.科学家们对大脑的这种相互连接特别感兴趣,从而预测音乐刺激对大脑认知能力的影响就在这个区域。Further research may lead to developments in cognitive rehabilitation for people with brain injuries.进一步的研究可能导向对脑损伤病人在认知康复的发展。For example, in order to rebuild verbal memory in patients with injury tothat part of the brain, doctors may prescribe music lessons.例如,为了重建病人大脑受损的非文字记忆部分,医生也许会开设音乐课。 201406/307638


  Israel and Palestine巴以The new normal新常态No matter what Israels prime minister says, the conflict with the Palestinians cannot simply be “managed”无论以色列总理说什么,巴以冲突都不可能简单的“处理好”。THE prime minister of Israel, Binyamin Netanyahu, has sought to make life normal. While the Middle East has gone up in flames, Israels economy has thrived. Cafés emptied a decade ago by Palestinian suicide-bombers are once again teeming with customers. Demonstrators in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv have protested not just about war and peace, but even more vociferously about the price of cottage cheese.以色列总理本雅明内塔尼亚胡正在设法使以色列回归正常生活。虽然中东地区陷入火海,以色列的经济却蓬勃发展。十年前被巴勒斯坦人自杀式炸弹袭击的咖啡馆由门可罗雀恢复成如今的顾客满盈。聚集在耶路撒冷和特拉维夫(以色列港市)的人民不再仅仅为了和平而示威,如今更多的却是由于白干酪的物价过高而抗议。This unreal normality is now under threat. After a two-year lull, rockets fired from Gaza have rained down on Israel. The Israel Defence Forces have struck hundreds of sites in Gaza. The army is y to mobilise up to 40,000 reserves. The talk is of a ground offensive against Hamas, which governs Gaza (see article). Palestinians, 70 of whom have aly been killed, are sliding towards a third uprising, or intifada.然而这种不真实的正常生活如今已受到威胁。才过两年平静的生活,巴勒斯坦便从加沙发射火箭弹炮轰以色列;以色列国防军随即攻占加沙地区数百个地区,并欲召集达40,000人的预备队对抗哈马斯集团,如今他们已经控制住加沙地区(另见文)。巴勒斯坦死亡人数已达70人,尽管如此,他们仍将发动第三次起义,或者说是暴动。Mr Netanyahus mistake—compounded by the actions of Mahmoud Abbas, leader of the Palestinians on the West Bank—is to think that their versions of normality can be sustained simply by managing the conflict. A stand-off is always liable to tip into violence. Lasting peace will come about only when the two sides reach a comprehensive settlement.内塔尼亚胡的失误,再加上西岸(1967年被以色列占领的巴勒斯坦的约旦河西岸的部分)的巴勒斯坦领袖马哈茂德·阿巴斯的行动,这似乎表明唯有平息两国冲突才能维护他们想要的正常生活。两军对峙常常会演变成暴力冲突。也唯有达成全面和解,两国才能拥有持久和平。More than maintenance不仅是维持Todays violence was triggered by the murder of three Israeli teenagers, snatched on their way back from study at ayeshiva in an Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Mr Netanyahu blamed Hamas—on evidence that remains unclear—leading to the arrest of hundreds of Palestinians, including some prisoners who had recently been released under an American-sponsored scheme designed to boost peace talks with Mr Abbas. In retaliation, and outraged at the murder of a young Palestinian, militants fired rockets into Israel. The IDF responded with lethal force. In a few short days, the original offence was superseded by the logic of escalating action and reaction.这次暴力行动的导火索是三名以色列青年被杀,他们在西岸的以色列殖民地ayeshiya上学,在放学路上被抓并杀害。内塔尼亚胡认为这是哈马斯集团所为,尽管据不足,但仍然逮捕了数百名巴勒斯坦人,其中包括近期由美国发起的同阿巴斯和平谈判计划中释放的犯人。一名年轻的巴勒斯坦人被杀害激怒了激进分子,为了报复以色列便向其发射火箭弹。以色列国防军(IDF)则施致命武力还以颜色。短短几天,两军行动不断升级。Such fragility is a symptom of the influence of extremists on both sides. Some on the Israeli right see a chance to smash Hamas, which has been weakened in Gaza, both by its own incompetence and by Egypts new government closing the tunnels leading from Sinai into Gaza. But Israeli force is more likely to revive Hamas than break it. The Islamists would once again rally support as the main resistance to the hated occupiers, whilst leaving Mr Abbas looking more like the stooge.双方激进分子的影响力很大,同时也很脆弱。持以色列的激进分子看到了粉碎哈马斯的希望,但由于自身无能和埃及新政府关闭了从西奈到加沙的隧道,导致在加沙的粉碎力量被削弱。但是以色列的武力貌似更可能复燃哈马斯,而不是将其粉碎。伊斯兰教徒可能会再次凝聚力量反对侵略者,阿巴斯则沦为配角。Centrist Israelis would settle for periodic missions designed to tamp down Hamas—“mowing the lawn” they call it. The idea is that the occasional brutal show of force can buy a few more years of normality. Yet doing so is becoming harder. Even if Hamass rockets remain inaccurate and are rarely lethal, the latest have reached parts of northern Israel 125 kilometres (80 miles) from Gaza. People in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem will, understandably, refuse to live under constant threat. Israel could of course smite its enemies with ever-bloodier fervour. But to the watching world, its overwhelming use of force, which always leaves many more Palestinians than Israelis dead, has often looked excessive—and its international standing, which moderate Israelis care about, tumbles further.以色列中间派则认为阶段性镇压哈马斯即可,即所谓的“割草行动”。他们认为偶尔派军队进行残酷镇压就可以换取数年的平静生活。然而这种状态也越来越难满足。虽然哈马斯的火箭弹从来不准,也鲜有致命,但是近期这次已经击中离加沙仅125千米(80米)的以色列北部地区。特拉维夫市和耶路撒冷的人们不愿意生活在威胁之下也是情理之中。以色列当然也可以用更加血腥的方式还击。但看看世界就会明白,压倒式军事行动通常只会使巴勒斯坦的死伤比以色列更加惨重;而温和的以色列中间派所重视的国际声望也会越跌越低。In any case, the status quo on the Palestinian side looks untenable. Mr Abbas is tired and ineffectual. Under him, normality for the West Banks Palestinians has come to mean accepting Israeli occupation while Israeli settlers gobble up ever more territory. Without even the prospect of statehood, Palestinians are impatient.无论如何,巴勒斯坦都无法维持现状。阿巴斯疲倦无能。在他的领导下,西岸的巴勒斯坦人要想过上正常生活就得接受被以色列占领,而同时,以色列就会贪婪地占领更多地方。国家地位堪忧,巴勒斯坦人民坐立不安。For all these reasons, the failure of Mr Netanyahu to make peace a priority is dangerous. He did not make the most of the recent plan put forward by John Kerry, Americas secretary of state. Both he and Mr Abbas recklessly pursued short-term advantage during the talks, leaving their countries vulnerable to those who argue that, with the hopes of peace exhausted, conflict is all that remains. That is wrong. Two states, one for Israelis and one for Palestinians, remains by far the greatest hope for peace. The parameters of an agreement are well-rehearsed. What is lacking is the conviction among reasonable people that such a settlement is needed now. Without that belief, Israels normality will always have an air of unreality.因此,出于所有这些原因,内塔尼亚胡促和平之举的失败会遭致危险。他并没有充分重视美国国务卿约翰·克里近期提出的计划。谈判时,他和阿巴斯贪图短期利益,欠缺考虑,置国家安危于不顾,一旦和平之梦破碎,冲突将无法避免。他们这种考虑是错误的。虽然两国双方,以色列和巴勒斯坦,都怀着至今为止最大的和平之梦;协议内容也经过精心安排。但是明理人士并不确信他们现在需要这样一份协议。缺少信心,以色列回归常态之梦总显得虚幻。 /201409/327175。



  Buzzfeed and online newsBuzzfeed与在线新闻Which media company are you?你是哪种媒体公司?How a young company plans to take on the news Leviathans一家年轻的公司该如何计划成为新闻业霸主WHEN Arianna Huffington sold her online-news firm for 5m in 2011, people gawked at the price tag. Now BuzzFeed, a hipper digital news firm co-founded by Jonah Peretti, a Huffington Post alumnus, has one-upped her. On August 10th Andreessen Horowitz, a venture-capital firm, said it was investing m in BuzzFeed, reportedly valuing the eight-year-old website at 0m, half the market value of the New York Times.当Arianna Huffington在2011年以3.15亿美元的价格卖掉她的在线新闻公司时,人们被这个价签惊呆了。如今,BuzzFeed—家由赫芬顿邮报员工Jonah Peretti联合创立的新潮的数字新闻公司,比她更胜一筹。8月10日,一家风险投资公司Andreessen Horowitz称其正拿出5000万美元对BuzzFeed公司进行投资,据报道,成立八年的BuzzFeed网站的估价为8.5亿美元,约为纽约时报市值的一半。Perhaps the investment is not so extraordinary. According to comScore, a research firm, BuzzFeed had around 75m unique visitors in June—more than the websites of the Times and other bigdailies. It makes money through “sponsored content”—which often looks remarkably and deliberately like a normal article, but is commissioned by advertisers. “Which Barbie Doll Are You?” was one of Buzzfeeds quizzes earlier this year . It was paid for by Mattel, Barbies maker.或许这一投资并非如此令人意外。根据一家研究公司comScore的数据,BuzzFeed 在6月拥有约7500万独立访问者,这个数字超过了时报等其他大型日报网站的独立访问量。它通过发布“赞助内容”来赚钱,这些“赞助内容”通常很引人注目且看起来很像普通的文章,但是实际上是由广告方委托发布的。BuzzFeed 今年年初的一个调查问卷—“你是哪种芭比娃娃?”就是由芭比娃娃的制造商—美泰花钱委托发布的。BuzzFeed is only one of several new-media firms making headlines. Others include Business Insider, Quartz and Vice. These firms know how to present stories slickly on screens and to create a buzz for their wares on social media.在这些新型媒体公司中,BuzzFeed 是唯一一家上头条的。这些新型媒体公司还包括Business Insider, Quartz 和Vice。这些公司熟知如何将故事巧妙的呈现在屏幕上,并在社交媒体上为其商品制造话题。ItsSilicon Valley. They say were toast这里是硅谷。他们说:我们完蛋了。It is rare for venture capitalists to invest in the news business, especially at a time when many owners of newspapers are selling them, from Gannett (publisher of USA Today) to Tribune Company (the Los Angeles Times). Perhaps Silicon Valley has so much cash that money is flooding all the way toNew York. But venture capitalists also seem to see an opportunity for new firms in a business mostly controlled by veterans.风险投资者鲜少投资新闻业,尤其是在这个众多报业拥有者纷纷出售其报纸产业的时期,从Gannett报业集团到论坛报业集团。Surprisingly, BuzzFeed is starting to look a bit like an old-media organisation itself. It plans to hire more journalists, opening outposts around the world this year. But Mr Peretti does not see any tension. “What you see in the history of media is that companies start out doing small, lower-cost ways of content and then move up the chain,” he says. BuzzFeed could yet go from producing “listicles” to listing on the stockmarket. But it still needs to answer the question, “Which Media Company Are You?”令人惊奇的是,BuzzFeed正开始看起来有点像一家传统媒体机构。它计划今年雇佣更多的记者,在全世界部署前哨。但Peretti先生没有感到任何压力。他说“你们在媒体历史中看到的是媒体公司一开始使用低档的低成本的方法从事媒体工作以及随后升级产业链”。 BuzzFeed 还能通过开发listicles功能进而使公司上市。但是“你是哪种媒体公司?”—这个问题依然需要解答。 /201408/321926

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