2017年12月15日 10:43:36|来源:国际在线|编辑:度排名推荐医院
At 6 AM, most of us are lucky if we have the energy to reach for a cup of coffee. Mornings may be rough, but hold off on sleeping in. There are perks to waking up with the sun, and we#39;ve got some tips on making it easier。早上6:00,大部分人估计都没那本事爬起来冲杯咖啡吧?早上是痛苦的,赖床怎么也赖不够。不过,还是有办法能让你伴着阳光醒来的,下面这些建议,就能让你早起更轻松!Snooze and Lose: The Need to Know贪睡与损失:你有必要知道The old “I’m just too tired” complaint may be more than a sorry excuse for waking up late. Research suggests there are biological differences between early larks, who wake up at the same time every morning and feel most active around 9 AM, and night owls, who get more stuff done once the sun goes down. And it may get easier to greet the day at dawn as we get older, thanks to body clock changes as we age 。那句“我只是太累了”的烂熟抱怨或许不只是晚起的借口那么简单。研究表明,“早起鸟”和“夜猫子”在生物上有着很多区别。“早起鸟”每天早上同一时间清醒,上午9:00时大脑最为活跃;而“夜猫子”的办事效率则在太阳落山后更高。而且,老了以后或许会更容易适应凌晨就醒的状态,毕竟人体生物钟也会随着年龄增大而发生变化。It turns out the early bird may get more than the worm. According to self-reports from college students, those who wake up earlier feel more optimistic and proactive than those who rise later. Other studies have found morning larks tend to be harder working and conscientious than night owls. (Still, it’s not clear whether waking up early actually makes someone more productive or optimistic。)事实明,早起的鸟儿或许真的就能吃到更多的虫子。根据大学生的自我报告,早起的人比晚起的人要更乐观积极。其他研究也发现,“早起鸟”比“夜猫子”更努力更自觉。(不过,早起是否真能让一个人变得更有效率或更加乐观,依然不甚清楚。)And perhaps the secret to a 4.0 isn’t only hitting the books: Another study of university undergraduates found those who said they function better in the morning received higher grades than those who preferred the evening That’s possibly because morning risers are more likely to get to class on time or to forgo late-night partying. Researchers also suggest memory may improve during sleep, so getting to bed earlier in preparation for a morning alarm could help those exam notes soak in。或许考高分的秘诀不只是“啃书本”了:大学生的另一项调查发现,那些自称早上头脑更清晰的人,通常也比那些夜晚型的人更容易考高分。这很可能也是因为早起型的人更容易准时上课或不去参加深夜派对吧。研究人员还认为,记忆可能会在睡眠时得到增强,所以早点上床准备第二天早起的话,确实会有助于吸收记忆考试内容吧。Being a morning person may actually be good for our health, too. When UK researchers questioned adults about their sleep habits, they found people who stay under the covers on the weekdays until 9 AM are more likely to be stressed, overweight, and depressed than those who get up at 7 AM. Another study found teenagers who went to bed and woke up late were less inclined to hit the gym and more likely to be overweight than those who went to bed and woke up early. Talk about waking up on the wrong side of the bed. (Again, remember it’s not clear that waking up early causes stress, depression, or weight gain。)而且,做一个早起的人确实也有益于身体健康。当英国的研究人员调查成年人的睡眠习惯时,他们发现,工作日赖床赖到9:00的人,比那些7:00就起床的人更容易增加体重、感到沮丧有压力。另有调查发现,较之于早睡早起型,那些晚睡晚起的年轻人不太会去健身运动,自然也就更容易发胖。这正是起不了床又毁了一天的情绪。(当然,早起是否会导致压力、抑郁或体重加剧,依然不甚明确。)Good Day Sunshine: Your Action Plan阳光美好的一天:你的行动计划Night owls aren’t totally out of luck. One study found evening lovers are more productive than morning people are at night. Still, being a morning person may be more advantageous for most people’s work schedules and routines, since the workday typically starts around 9 AM and the office is (usually!) not open at midnight. Regardless of the situation, there are ways to reset the body clock and happily greet the day:“夜猫子”也不完全一无是处。有项调查发现,“夜猫子”在晚上远比“早起鸟”有效率。不过,对大多数人的工作计划和日常事务而言,早起还是很占优势的,毕竟,工作日上班通常都是9:00开始,而不是半夜!不管怎样,还是有办法调整生物钟,从而开心拥抱新的一天的:1. Get enough sleep. It may seem obvious, but getting those recommended seven to nine hours will make getting up earlier easier. Pro tip? Keep the laptop and other work out of the bed to sleep soundly。保充足睡眠。或许有些老掉牙,但睡足7-9小时确实更容易让你早起。小建议就是,请让笔记本电脑以及其他事务远离床头,酣睡一觉吧!2. Stay consistent. Try to set the alarm clock for the same time every morning—including weekends. A constant wakeup call may make it progressively easier to jump out of bed。保持持续一致。每天早上的闹钟都要设成相同的时间——周末也是。坚持早上被这样叫醒,然后你会越来越起得来床。3. Start slowly. Pick a new wakeup time and gradually work towards it. Want to wake up at 7 AM but stuck at 8? Start by setting the clock for 7:45, and move down in 15-minute increments until that new time goal is reached。循序渐进。重新定一个起床时间,然后慢慢去适应它。本想7:00起床,却一直赖到了8:00?那就把闹钟调到7:45吧,留15分钟间隙让起床目标更容易实现!4. Skip the snooze. Disrupting sleep an hour or so before actually getting out of bed may disturb our REM cycle, which helps stimulate brain regions linked to cognition. Don’t want to mess with that (or bug a roommate with multiple alarms!). Set one alarm for when it’s time to rise—and maybe another a few minutes later in case you snooze through。不要贪睡。还没完全睡醒准备起床却被打扰,这样可能会扰乱人体的REM(快速眼球运动)周期,而REM则会刺激大脑的认知区域。所以不要那样,也不要设太多闹钟搅得室友睡不好觉!只在该起床的时间点设一个闹钟就行了,要是你特容易睡过头,那就再调一个几分钟之后的吧。5. Set some happy sounds. Skip the beeps and blares and set an alarm tone to something soothing or fun。选一个愉悦的闹铃。不要再用滴滴滴类的铃声啦,选一个舒缓愉悦的吧。6. Let in the light. Research shows a little light may be all we need to reset the body block. A simple solution is to keep the blinds open during the night. Or greet the day and brush your teeth outside!让阳光洒进来。研究发现,稍微一丝光亮或许就足以唤醒人体的生物钟。一个简单的方法就是晚上把窗帘拉开,或者到外面去刷牙!7. Eat breakfast. Sleepiness doesn’t disappear just from drinking a cup of coffee. Having enough time for some green eggs and ham (or maybe just a yogurt parfait) will also provide energy, not to mention it’ll boost that brainpower, too。吃早饭。一杯咖啡并不能赶走瞌睡。花时间吃点有营养的鸡蛋汉堡(或乳酪)不仅补充能量,还能增强脑力呢。8. Hit the gym. Those tired eyes may go away once a morning workout routine is in order. Exercise will definitely boost energy—give these early-bird exercises a try。运动健身。早上若能安排健身,眼睛或许瞬间就能消除疲劳了。运动毫无疑问可以激发能量——尝试一下“早起鸟”运动吧。9. Treat yo’self. Have a reward waiting in the a.m. to motivate climbing out of the covers. Dive into some freshly based fruit and nut bars, or slide into a warm bath instead of taking a quick shower。犒赏自己。早上设一份奖励,激励自己爬出被窝。比如吃点新鲜烘焙的水果和坚果棒,或代之淋浴而泡个温暖的热水澡。10. J.F.D.I. Sometimes we need to bite the bullet and “just f’ing do it.; Researchers have found that creativity may flourish when we feel groggy, so don’t let a little drowsiness interrupt seizing the day!拿出行动吧!有时我们真的只要咬咬牙“拿出行动”就行了。研究人员还发现,创意很可能会在人们昏昏沉沉时爆发,所以别让丁点的瞌睡毁了新的一天哦! /201507/386955

Thomas Mann believed in the power of perambulation: “Thoughts come clearly while one walks.” Not for three men and three women who, until this week, were incarcerated in a dome erected on a dormant volcano in Hawaii.托马斯#8226;曼(Thomas Mann)相信慢走的力量:“一个人走路时,思维变得清晰。”然而,对于直到近期一直置身于夏威夷一座休眠火山上的圆顶基地里的三男三女来说,情况并非如此。During eight months of voluntary confinement on the slopes of Mauna Loa, a walk outside meant donning spacesuits and grappling with airlocks — hardly a recipe for mental clarity but, instead, preparation for what life might be like in the first human settlement on Mars. The isolation experiment, which finished on Saturday and was funded by Nasa, was designed to examine the psychological challenges for strangers brought inescapably together in a hostile Martian environment, where venturing out unprotected in the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere would lead to suffocation within three minutes.在莫纳罗亚山斜坡上八个月的自愿“监禁”期间,外出散步意味着要穿上宇航、忍受气闸仓气压变化——这可不是保持头脑清醒的良方,而是为人类在火星上的首个定居点生活做准备。此次由美国国家航空航天局(NASA)资助的隔离实验6月13日结束,其目的是为了观察一群陌生人在被集体带到危险的火星环境中且无法逃脱的情况下遭遇的心理挑战。在没有防护的情况下冒险外出并暴露在火星富含二氧化碳的环境中,会导致一个人在三分钟内窒息而亡。The vista from the dome’s single porthole was not the garland-strewn paradise of honeymooners but a barren, silent landscape of lava fields and mountains. The group, led by Canadian engineer Martha Lenio, reported missing the sun and wind on their skin, a varied diet, long showers and seeing the world through visorless eyes. Dr Lenio staved off boredom by knitting, improving her French and learning the ukulele, writing in her blog: “It may actually be really weird to see other people again.” Disappointingly, the sextet still seem to be on jovial terms and have been enjoying the more familiar delights of Hawaii.从圆顶基地唯一的舷窗看到的景象不是度蜜月的情侣们洒满花环的天堂,而是一片贫瘠、寂静的火山熔岩和山脉。由加拿大工程师玛莎#8226;莱尼奥(Martha Lenio)率领的小组,报告了他们如何想念皮肤感受到阳光和风的感觉,想念各式各样的美食、长时间的淋浴和不用带着面罩看世界。莱尼奥士通过织毛衣、提升自己的法语和学弹尤克里里琴来打发无聊的时光,她在客中写道:“再次见到其他人时可能会真的感到非常奇怪。”令人失望的是,这个六人小组看起来仍很开心,一直享受着夏威夷那些更让人熟悉的欢乐之处。The Red Planet is seen as humankind’s next cosmic destination: an obvious frontier as we seek out new worlds, not only for the pure thrill of exploration but also as an insurance policy should we screw things up on our own planet. Dr Lenio’s project forms part of a Nasa effort to send people to an asteroid in 2025 and to Mars in the 2030s; both missions are intended as return trips and will thus depend heavily on technological developments such as improved propulsion and sustainable living. Engineers can build rockets to travel the 225m km there; equipping them with the technology and propellant to bring travellers back is virtually impossible.火星被视为人类在宇宙中的下一个目的地——我们探索新世界时显而易见的前沿阵地,不仅是为了探险的纯粹刺激,而且是作为一份万一我们在地球上生存不下去时的保险单。莱尼奥士的项目是NASA努力的一部分,后者计划在2025年和本世纪30年代分别将人类送上一颗小行星和火星;两项任务都包括返程,因此,将严重依赖推进和维生等技术的进步。工程师能够建造飞行2.25亿公里到达火星的火箭;但靠现有的技术和推进燃料,要将宇航员带回地球几乎不可能。Nasa, though, faces competition from Mars One, a controversial mission [WHO IS BEHIND THIS?]that has looked to private investors and crowdfunding rather than the public purse. Mars One, brainchild of Dutch entrepreneur Bas Lansdorp, is a faster and dirtier affair, open to all comers — and offers no ticket back. More than 200,000 applicants relished the idea of leaving Earth for good, with 100 surviving the selection process so far. The plan is that, in 2025 if funds suffice, some of them will emigrate to live permanently on Mars — or at least die trying. There is great scepticism about whether the mission will actually get off the ground.不过,NASA面临着来自“火星一号”(Mars One)的竞争,后者是一项有争议的计划,主要面向私人投资者和众筹,不花费公帑。荷兰企业家巴斯#8226;朗斯多普(Bas Lansdorp)提出的火星一号计划,是一项更快但也更邪门的计划,它对所有人开放,但没有返程票。超过20万申请者喜欢这个永久离开地球的想法,到目前为止共有100人通过了遴选过程。根据该计划,到2025年如果资金足够的话,他们中的一些人将永久移民到火星上居住——或者至少死在尝试的过程中。对于这项计划能否真正实施,存在很大的疑问。Still, its selling proposition has chutzpah: this is not so much about going anywhere boldly as about reality television. Those behind Mars One plan to sell TV rights and strike sponsorship deals associated with arguably the biggest world event since the first Moon landing: the colonisation of another planet.而且,其推销说辞十分厚颜无耻,实际上,与其说该计划是探索某地的大胆尝试,不如说是一场电视真人秀。那些火星一号背后的人,计划就堪称自人类首次登月以来最大的世界性事件——殖民另一个星球——出售电视转播权、签订赞助协议。Mars certainly has box office potential. This autumn The Martian will be released — a Ridley Scott film about an astronaut left to survive on the planet after his crew mistakenly believes he died in a storm and return to Earth without him. Watching fellow humans trying to establish a settlement on Mars, for real, would be a curious televisual mix of the high-minded and the lowbrow — the grandness of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos blended with the coarser, voyeuristic appeal of Big Brother and Survivor.火星当然拥有票房潜力。今年秋天,里德利#8226;斯科特(Ridley Scott)导演的电影《火星》(The Martian)将上映,影片讲述了一名宇航员在被同伴误认为死于一场风暴而被单独留在火星上生存下来的故事。观看人类同胞真实地尝试在火星上建立定居点,将是一种令人好奇的电视体验,这种电视节目会是雅俗共赏——既有《卡尔#8226;萨根的宇宙》(Carl Sagan’s Cosmos)的宏伟,又有《老大哥》(Big Brother)和《幸存者》(Survivor)较为粗俗和满足偷窥欲的吸引力。Amid such cliffhangers as whether the publicity-craving pioneers will coax their edible plants to grow, or finish knitting their hazmat suits, lies the promise of a darker cinematic hinterland: death by solar radiation, the prospect of dwindling supplies and slow starvation (cannibalism?), and psychological meltdown as a Mars One astronaut regrets his irreversible decision. Perfect 21st-century viewing, I fear.会有很多悬念,例如,那些渴望成名的先驱者是否会照看可食植物的生长,或编织好自己的防护,在这些悬念之中,必定存在更为黑暗的电影般的危险:死于太阳辐射,可能发生补给品减少和缓慢的饥饿(会吃人?),以及当一名火星一号宇航员后悔自己做出不可逆转的决定时心理崩溃。恐怕这就是21世纪完美的电视节目。 /201506/383319

We found that the snack industry in China has been growing at a steady clip of roughly 15% annual growth. It was worth more than 200 billion RMB in 2011, and it’s forecast to be worth 480 billion by 2018.我们发现中国的零食产业正在以每年约15%的速度稳定增长。在2011年零食产业的规模已经超过了2000亿元人民币,预计到2018年,中国整个零食产业的规模将超过4800亿元人民币。Is there any visible trend? What are the reasons behind that? What drive the growth?是否有什么明显的发展趋势?是什么推动中国的零食产业发展?增长率的背后原因是什么?Although growth is still significant, it has seen a steady decline in the past decade. Since 2004, the growth rates for sweets and chocolates have declined to about 10% currently, and similarly, instant noodles are down, although they still remain at roughly 20% annual growth this year. Fruit juice and soft drinks have seen their growth rates halved in the last three years. So as you can see, though the snack industry is still strong, it is suffering from an overall downard trend. As mainland Chinese consumers especially begin to have higher income and greater awareness of health issues, they are buying fewer prepared foods and snacks. Whereas five or ten years ago, instant noodles were a cheap source of nourishment, consumers now have more income to spend on better foods, and consume snacks mostly for instant satisfaction or energy.整个中国的零食产业虽然增长率依然喜人,但是在过去的十年里,其增长速度已经开始有所稳步下降。相比2004年,甜食和巧克力市场的增长速度已经下跌了约10%,同样方便面虽然依然保持着20%左右的增长速度,但是增速在放缓。相比三年前,果汁和软饮料销量的增长速度下降了50%。由此可见,虽然中国的零食产业依然兴旺,但是正面临整体下行的趋势。中国大陆的消费者收入增长,对健康的意识比以前更高,对预制食品和零食的购买量有所下降。在5-10年前,方便面曾经是中国大陆许多人廉价的营养来源,但是现在消费者有更多收入,可以用于购买更好的食品,零食消费对于现在的中国消费者来说只是满足一时口福或者是补充能量。Research sugggests that in the below-40s demographic, 88.5% of interviewees feel that snacks don’t offer any nutrition, and are particularly wary of those containing saturatedfats and sugars. We can expect to see two main developments; first of all, more local producers addressing the snack market, and secondly, more nutritious, low-fat and health-oriented snacks.研究发现中国40岁以下被访者中有88.5%认为零食不能提供营养,并且对含有反式脂肪和糖类的零食尤其担忧。可以预见的主要发展趋势有两条,首先,更多中国本土的制造商会进入零食市场;其次,会涌现出更多有营养、低脂的健康导向零食。What kinds of snacks are more popular and who would buy more snacks?哪种零食更受欢迎?哪些人购买的零食更多?Generally, chocolates and potato chips are the most popular “foreign” snacks, while instant noodles remain very popular as well. The greatest consumer demographic are the 22-35s, especially the females, as they can both afford to buy their own snacks, and tend to have busy and work (or study) dominated lifestyles that don’t allow for much cooking. Teenagers and young children are also a very large consumer groups.虽然方便面的受欢迎程度依然不错,但总的来说,巧克力和薯片是中国最受欢迎的“洋”零食。后两者的消费者年龄在22-35岁之间,以女性居多。这个消费群体既能够自己购买零食,生活中工作或学习又占去非常多的时间,没有太多时间做饭。青少年和儿童也是很大的消费人群。Will imported products/multinational brands more popular in China?进口商品和跨国品牌是否在中国更受欢迎?Multinational brands dominate in China’s snack industry. The top 10 snack brands are Want-want, Kraft Foods, LIWAYWAY, DANONE, Wm Wrigley Jr Company, Dove, ORION, Xufuji and Jiashili. Of these brands, Wang-want and Xufuji are Taiwanese, accounting for 20% market share. Kraft Foods, LIWAYWAY, DANONE, Wm Wrigley Jr Company, Dove, ORION occupy 50% of the Chinese snack market together. Xufuji and Jiashili aredomestic brands, and though they together account for 20%, they are still in the minority.跨国企业确实占领了中国的零食市场。目前排名前十位的零食品牌为:旺旺、卡夫食品、上好佳、达能、箭牌糖果、德芙、好丽友、徐福记和嘉士利。其中台湾品牌有旺旺和徐福记,市场份额占到20%。卡夫食品、上好佳、达能、箭牌糖果、德芙和好丽友加起来占50%市场份额。虽然徐福记和嘉士利是本土品牌,但是加起来才只有20%市场份额,依然属于少数派。However, some domestic brands have the potential to increase their market share in the future. For example, Le Conte, Dali and Qinqin, as these brands know the needs of Chinese consumers better than foreign brands.不过未来其它本土品牌的市场份额有上升趋势。例如金帝、达利和亲亲等,因为这些厂商更懂得如何满足中国消费者的口味,这正是外国厂商所欠缺的。What’s the position of China in Asia in this industry?中国在整个亚洲零食产业中的比重如何?In 2013, the growth rate of exports and imports of Chinese snacks increased significantly, with Brazil, ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and America acting as the three biggest foods trade partner. However, overall, China doesn’t have the same reach as Japanese snack producers, for example. Chocolate is the most popular snack in the Pacific area, and since chocolate is one area where China does not have a significant contribution to make to the market, it’ll be in other areas that China’s exporters could grow.2013年是中国零食进出口量激增的一年,巴西、东盟和美国是中国零食进出口三大贸易伙伴。不过总体看来,中国零食厂商还没有达到日本厂商的水平。比如说,在太平洋地区,最受欢迎的零食是巧克力,但是中国厂商在巧克力市场上占领的市场份额不是很多,所以,巧克力市场是中国零食出口的又一增长点。 /201412/349078

ORLANDO, Fla. — One morning recently, a dozen college students stepped out of the bright sunshine into a dimly lit room at the counseling center here at the University of Central Florida. They appeared to have little in common: undergraduates in flip-flops and nose rings, graduate students in interview-y attire.佛罗里达州奥兰多——近日的一个早晨,十几名大学生从明媚的阳光中走入中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida, U.C.F.)心理咨询中心所在的昏暗房间。乍一看,这些学生身上完全没有共同点:本科生踢拉着人字拖,穿着鼻环;研究生则衣着正式如同正准备参加面试。But all were drawn to this drop-in workshop: “Anxiety 101.”但他们都是被该中心开办的随到随加入的研讨会——“焦虑症101(Anxiety 101)”吸引而来。As they sat in a circle, a therapist, Nicole Archer, asked: “When you’re anxious, how does it feel?”大家围成一圈坐了下来,治疗师妮科尔·阿谢尔(Nicole Archer)问道:“当你焦虑的时候,具体有什么感觉?”“I have a faster heart rate,” whispered one young woman. “I feel panicky,” said another. Sweating. Ragged breathing. Insomnia.“我会心跳加速,”一个年轻女子小声说。“我感到恐慌,”另一个说。还会冒汗,呼吸急促,失眠。Causes? Schoolwork, they all replied. Money. Relationships. The more they thought about what they had to do, the students said, the more paralyzed they became.那么,焦虑的原因有哪些呢?课业,所有的学生都给出了这一;此外还有金钱和人际关系等。越是想着他们必须要做的那些事,他们就越是什么都干不成。Anxiety has now surpassed depression as the most common mental health diagnosis among college students, though depression, too, is on the rise. More than half of students visiting campus clinics cite anxiety as a health concern, according to a recent study of more than 100,000 students nationwide by the Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State.目前,焦虑症已经超越抑郁症成为大学生中最常见的心理健康问题(不过抑郁症也在增加之中)。宾夕法尼亚州立大学的大学生心理健康中心(Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State)近期的一项研究调查了全美的10万多名大学生,发现一半以上的学生到校园诊所就诊时提到了焦虑问题,并视其为健康隐患。Nearly one in six college students has been diagnosed with or treated for anxiety within the last 12 months, according to the annual national survey by the American College Health Association.美国大学健康学会(American College Health Association)的年度全国调查显示,近六分之一的大学生在过去的12个月内曾被诊断为焦虑症或因焦虑症接受过治疗。The causes range widely, experts say, from mounting academic pressure at earlier ages to overprotective parents to compulsive engagement with social media. Anxiety has always played a role in the developmental drama of a student’s life, but now more students experience anxiety so intense and overwhelming that they are seeking professional counseling.专家称焦虑症的原因多种多样,从早年积累下来的学业压力、家长的过度保护到对社交媒体的强迫性依赖等等不一而足。一直以来,焦虑情绪都在从不同程度上影响着学生的成长历程,但现在,越来越多的学生感到这种情绪已经让他们不堪重负,以至于需要寻求专业心理辅导的帮助。As students finish a college year during which these cases continued to spike, the consensus among therapists is that treating anxiety has become an enormous challenge for campus mental health centers.由于学年结束此类病例的数量持续飙升,所以治疗师们达成共识,认为治疗焦虑症已成为校园心理健康中心面临的一项巨大挑战。Like many college clinics, the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services at the University of Central Florida — one of the country’s largest and fastest-growing universities, with roughly 60,000 students — has seen sharp increases in the number of clients: 15.2 percent over last year alone. The center has grown so rapidly that some supply closets have been converted to therapists’ offices.中佛罗里达大学拥有约6万名学生,是全美最大、也是发展最快的大学之一。与许多校园门诊一样,该校的心理咨询和务中心(Center for Counseling and Psychological Services)的客户数量也在急剧增加:仅去年一年就增加了15.2%。由于发展太过迅速,该中心的一部分储物间都被改造成了治疗师的办公室。More students are seeking help partly because the stigma around mental health issues is lessening, noted Stephanie Preston, a counselor at U.C.F.U.C.F.的咨询师斯蒂芬妮·普雷斯顿(Stephanie Preston)指出,前来求助的学生有所增加,一部分原因是人们已经渐渐不再以心理健康问题为耻了。Ms. Preston has seen the uptick in anxiety among her student clients. One gets panic attacks merely at the thought of being called upon in class. And anxiety was among a constellation of diagnoses that became life-threatening for another client, Nicholas Graves.普雷斯顿发现,在她的学生客户中,焦虑症正在增加。有一个学生仅仅因为想到会在课堂上被点名就恐慌发作。对于她的另一个客户尼古拉斯·格雷夫斯(Nicholas Graves),焦虑症是危及他生命安全的一系列疾病之一。Two years ago, Mr. Graves, a stocky cinema studies major in jeans, a T-shirt and Converse sneakers, could scarcely get to class. That involved walking past groups of people and riding a bus — and Mr. Graves felt that everyone was staring at him.格雷夫斯是电影研究专业的学生,他身材矮胖,喜欢穿牛仔裤、T恤和匡威运动鞋。两年前,他几乎无法正常去上课——因为路上要走过人群并乘坐公共汽车,而他总觉得每个人都在盯着他看。He started cutting himself. He was hospitalized twice for psychiatric observation.他开始割伤自己,也曾两次住院接受精神科观察。After some sessions with Ms. Preston, group therapy and medication, Mr. Graves, 21, who sat in an office at the center recently describing his harrowing journey, said he has made great progress.格雷夫斯现年21岁。最近某次他坐在该中心办公室里描述他在路途上的悲惨经历时,他表示经过与普雷斯顿谈话数次,又接受了小组治疗和药物治疗之后,自己已经取得了重大的进步。“I’m more focused in school, and I’ve made more friends in my film courses — I found my tribe,” he said, smiling. “I’ve been open about my anxiety and depression. I’m not ashamed anymore.”“现在我在学校更能集中注意力了,还在电影课上交到了更多的朋友——我找到了我的圈子,”他微笑着说。“我没有避讳我的焦虑症和抑郁症,我也不再因它们而感到羞愧了。”Anxiety has become emblematic of the current generation of college students, said Dan Jones, the director of counseling and psychological services at Appalachian State University in Boone, N.C.阿帕拉契州立大学(Appalachian State University,位于北卡罗来纳州布恩市)心理咨询与务中心的主任丹·琼斯(Dan Jones)说,焦虑已成为当代大学生的典型标志。Because of escalating pressures during high school, he and other experts say, students arrive at college preloaded with stress. Accustomed to extreme parental oversight, many seem unable to steer themselves. And with parents so accessible, students have had less incentive to develop life skills.包括他在内的专家表示,由于高中期间的压力不断增大,学生本身就是带着压力进的大学。很多学生都习惯于父母无微不至的监督,几乎没有自制能力。而且,由于家长总在身边,学生们普遍缺乏学习独立生活技能的动力。“A lot are coming to school who don’t have the resilience of previous generations,” Dr. Jones said. “They can’t tolerate discomfort or having to struggle. A primary symptom is worrying, and they don’t have the ability to soothe themselves.”“很多学生都不具备前几代人身上的那种坚韧品格,”琼斯士说。“他们无法忍受任何不适,也不愿意去努力奋斗。一个主要的症状就是焦虑,而且他们也缺乏安抚自己情绪的能力。”Social media is a gnawing, roiling constant. As students see posts about everyone else’s fabulous experiences, the inevitable comparisons erode their self-esteem. The popular term is “FOMO” — fear of missing out.社交媒体是一个折磨人的、令人不安的存在。当学生看到其他人发布的讲述自己精经历的帖子时,不可避免的攀比心理会削弱他们的自尊。对此,流行的说法叫做“社交控(FOMO, fear of missing out)”。And so personal setbacks that might once have become “teachable moments” turn into triggers for a mental health diagnosis.于是,原本应成为“受到启迪的契机”的个人挫折变成了心理健康问题的诱发因素。“Students are seeking treatment, saying, ‘I just got the first C in my life, my whole life just got shattered, I wanted to go to medical school and I can’t cope,’” said Micky M. Sharma, president of the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors and head of Ohio State University’s counseling center.美国大学校院心理辅导中心主任协会(Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors)主席,俄亥俄州立大学(Ohio State University)心理咨询中心的负责人米基·M·夏尔马(Micky M. Sharma)说:“学生们来寻求治疗时说着:‘我刚得了这辈子的第一个C,整个人都不好了,我想进医学院啊怎么办,我受不了了。”Anxiety is an umbrella term for several disorders, including social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia. It can accompany many other diagnoses, such as depression, and it can be persistent and incapacitating.焦虑症是几种疾病的总称,包括社交焦虑障碍(social anxiety disorder)和广场恐怖症(agoraphobia)等。它可伴有抑郁症等许多其它疾病,并可能持续存在并使患者丧失正常的行动能力。Students who suffer from this acute manifestation can feel their very real struggles are shrugged off, because anxiety has become so ubiquitous, almost a cliché, on campus.急性焦虑症发作的学生常感到别人对自己的痛苦和困扰不屑一顾,因为在大学校园中,焦虑症已变得如此普遍,人们已经见怪不怪了。Alexa, 18, has been treated for an anxiety disorder since middle school, when she was still feeling terrorized by monsters under the bed. She has just finished her freshman year at Queens College in New York.亚历克莎(Alexa)在初中时仍会被“床底下的怪物”吓坏,从那时起她就开始接受焦虑症治疗。如今18岁的她刚刚在纽约的皇后学院(Queens College)念完大学一年级。If she had a severe episode during a test, afterward she would try to explain to her professors what had happened but they would dismiss her. “They’d say, ‘Your mind isn’t focused,’ or ‘That’s just an excuse,’ ” said Alexa, who wrote her college application essay about grappling with the disorder. She asked not to be fully identified for privacy reasons.要是她在考试期间出现严重的焦虑症发作,之后她就需要试着向教授们解释缘由,但他们很可能并不买账。“他们会说:‘你只是思想不集中,’或者‘你不过是在找借口,’”亚历克莎说,她把自己与焦虑症斗争的经历写在了大学入学申请书里。为保护个人隐私,应她的要求隐去了她的部分身份信息。More often, anxiety is mild, intermittent or temporary, the manifestation of a student in the grip of a normal developmental issue — learning time management, for example, or how to handle rejection from a sorority.不过,在更多的情况下焦虑症状都比较轻微,呈间歇性或临时性,常表现为学生因正常的个人发展问题而苦恼,例如,学习管理时间,或被女生联谊会拒绝后应如何进行心理调适。Mild anxiety is often treatable with early, modest interventions. But to care for rising numbers of severely troubled students, many counseling centers have moved to triage protocols. That means that students with less urgent needs may wait several weeks for first appointments.轻度的焦虑症常可以通过早期、适度的干预来进行治疗。但是,鉴于受到严重困扰的学生人数不断上升,许多咨询中心都采取了分诊措施。这就意味着,情况不太严重的学生们可能需要等待数周才能第一次约见咨询师。“A month into the semester, a student is having panic attacks about coming to class, but the wait list at the counseling center is two to five weeks out. So something the student could recover from quickly might only get worse,” said Ben Locke, associate director of clinical services at Penn State University and the lead author of the Penn State report.“开学一个月后,一个学生准备去上课的时候恐慌发作,但心理咨询中心的候诊名单已经排到二到五周之后了。结果该学生本来很快就可以摆脱的一些阴影可能就进一步恶化了,”宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State University)临床务部的副主任,宾州州立大学报告的主要作者本·洛克(Ben Locke)说。By necessity, most centers can only offer individual therapy on a short-term basis. Ms. Preston estimates that about 80 percent of clients at U.C.F. need only limited therapy.从必要性来看,大多数心理咨询中心只提供短期的个性化治疗就可以了。普雷斯顿估计,在U.C.F.,大约80%的客户只需要接受有限的治疗。“Students are busting their butts academically, they’re financially strapped, working three jobs,” she said. “There’s nothing diagnosable, but sometimes they just need a place to express their distress.”“学生们已经被学业忙得焦头烂额,他们经济拮据,说不定要打三份工,”她说。“他们并不需要什么诊断,有时候,他们只是需要有个地方来发泄一下忧虑的情绪。”Even with 30 therapists, the center at U.C.F. must find other ways to reach more students — especially the ones who suffer, smoldering, but don’t seek help.尽管U.C.F.的心理咨询中心配有30名治疗师,但他们仍需找到其他方式来帮助更多的学生,尤其是那些正遭受着痛苦却闷在心里,不愿意寻求帮助的学生。Like many college counseling centers, U.C.F. has designed a variety of daily workshops and therapy groups that implicitly and explicitly address anxiety, depression and their triggers. Next fall the center will test a new app for treating anxiety with a seven-module cognitive behavioral program, accessible through a student’s phone and augmented with brief conferences with a therapist.像许多大学的心理咨询中心一样,U.C.F.也设置了多种日常研讨会和治疗小组,以直接或间接的方式解决焦虑、抑郁问题及其触发源。明年秋天,该中心将对一种新的拥有七个模块的认知行为疗法应用程序进行测试,学生可以通过手机获取该应用,并可与治疗师进行简短的视频谈话。It also offers semester-long, 90-minute weekly therapy groups, such as “Keeping Calm and in Control,” “Mindfulness for Depression” and “Building Social Confidence” — for students struggling with social anxiety.它还将提供持续整个学期,每周90分钟的小组治疗,例如为疲于应付社交焦虑症的学生开设的“保持冷静和自控”、“抑郁症的正念冥想治疗”和“构建社会信任”疗程等。The therapists have to be prepared to manage students who present a wide array of challenges. “You never know who is going to walk in,” said Karen Hofmann, the center’s director. “Someone going through a divorce. Mourning the death of a parent. Managing a bipolar disorder. Or they’re transgender and need a letter for hormone therapy.”治疗师必须做好准备以应对学生五花八门的问题。“你永远不知道走进咨询室将会是怎样一个人,”该中心的主任卡伦·霍夫曼(Karen Hofmann)说。“有人正在办离婚,有人沉浸在丧父/丧母的悲痛中,有人正接受躁郁症(bipolar disorder)治疗,又或者,来者是个变性人,需要你开个明以进行激素治疗。”Indeed, Dr. Locke and his colleagues at Penn State, who have tracked campus counseling centers nationwide for six years, have documented a trend that other studies have noted: Students are arriving with ever more severe mental-health issues.事实上,洛克士和他在宾夕法尼亚州立大学的同事们追踪全美的校园心理咨询中心已有六年之久,他们实了其他研究早已发现的一个趋势:前来就诊的学生的心理健康问题日益严重。Half of clients at mental health centers in their most recent report had aly had some form of counseling before college. One-third have taken psychiatric medication. One quarter have self-injured.心理健康中心的客户有一半在其最近的报告中称他们在上大学之前就已经接受过某种形式的心理辅导。有三分之一曾接受过精神科药物治疗。四分之一存在自伤行为。The fundamental goal of campus counseling centers is to help students complete their education. According to federal statistics, just 59 percent of students who matriculated at four year colleges in 2006 graduated within six years.校园心理咨询中心的根本目的在于帮助学生完成学业。根据联邦政府的统计,在2006年被四年制大学录取的学生中,在六年内毕业的只占59%。Studies have repeatedly emphasized the nexus between mental health and academic success. In a survey this year at Ohio State’s center, just over half of the student clients said that counseling was instrumental in helping them remain in school.众多研究一再强调心理健康和学业成功之间存在关联。今年在俄亥俄州立大学心理咨询中心进行的一项调查中,只有刚刚过半的学生客户认为心理辅导有助于他们避免辍学。Anxiety-ridden students list schoolwork as their chief stressor. U.C.F.’s center and after-hours hotline are busiest when midterm and final exams loom. That’s when the center runs what has become its most popular event: “Paws-a-tively Stress Free.”深受焦虑症之苦的学生们将课业列为首要的压力源。U.C.F.的心理咨询中心及其非工作时间热线都是在期中和期末考试迫近时最为繁忙。在这种时候,该中心就会开展他们最受欢迎的活动:“治疗犬减压法(Paws-a-tively Stress Free)”。The other afternoon, just before finals week, students, tired and apprehensive, trickled into the center. The majority were not clients.期末考试周前的一个下午,疲惫而惶惑的学生们陆续走进了心理咨询中心。其中大多数都不是该中心的客户。At a tent outside, their greeter was the center’s mascot and irresistible magnet: a 14-pound Havanese, a certified therapy dog whom many clients ask to hold during individual sessions, stroking his silky white coat to alleviate anxiety.等在室外帐篷处,带着不可抗拒的吸引力欢迎他们的是该中心的吉祥物——一条14磅重的哈瓦那犬。这是一条经过认的治疗犬,该中心的很多客户都要求在他们的个人疗程中跟它待在一起,抚摸着它柔滑的白色皮毛以缓解焦虑。“Bodhi!” they called, as he trotted over, welcoming them to his turf with a friendly sniff.“菩提!”学生们叫道。它一路小跑过来,友好地嗅嗅他们,欢迎他们来到它的草坪。For the next two hours, some 75 students visited the center, sitting on floors for a heavy petting session with therapy dogs.在接下来的两个小时中,约75名学生参观了中心,并坐在地板上与治疗犬们共同完成了“亲密爱抚疗程”(heavy petting session)。They laughed at the dogs’ antics and rubbed their bellies. They remarked on how nice it was to get a study break.学生们被的滑稽动作逗得捧腹大笑。他们都说能从学业中得到片刻喘息实在太美好了。On the way out, the students were handed a smoothie and a “stress kit,” which included a mandala, crayons, markers, stress balls and “Smarties” candy.在离开的路上,工作人员向学生们递上了水果冰沙和“压力工具盒”,里面放着曼荼罗绘(mandala)、色蜡笔、记号笔、压力球和“Smarties”糖什么的。Also tucked into the kit was a card with information about how to contact the center, should they ever need something more.工具盒里还塞了一张信息卡,告诉学生们如果他们需要更多的帮助,应如何与该中心取得联系。 /201506/379322

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