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A billionaire couple who pioneered internet games in China are donating 5m to the California Institute of Technology for brain research in an effort to help humans accept mortality.身为中国互联网游戏先驱的一对亿万富豪夫妇向加州理工学院(Caltech)捐赠1.15亿美元用于大脑研究,目的是帮助人类接受死亡。The gift by Tianqiao Chen and Chrissy Luo, founders of Shanda — which began life as an online games developer before transforming into an investment group with stakes in Lending Club and Legg Mason — underlines the increasingly prominent role played by mainland Chinese entrepreneurs in global philanthropy.盛大(Shanda)创始人陈天桥和雒芊芊(Chrissy Luo)的这笔捐赠突显中国大陆企业家在全球慈善事业中扮演越来越重要的角色。盛大最初是一家网络游戏开发商,后来转型为一家投资集团,持有Lending Club和美盛(Legg Mason)股份。“How can we cure death? That is the key of our philanthropy vision,” Mr Chen told the Financial Times. Understanding how the brain and mind worked would enable people to master emotions such as pain and fear.“我们如何治愈死亡?这是我们慈善愿景的关键,”陈天桥对英国《金融时报》表示。了解大脑和思维如何工作,将使人们能够驾驭疼痛和恐惧等情绪。“Why can’t we accept death?” he said. “Because of fear, because of pain — all the negative perception.”“为什么我们不能接受死亡?”他说。“因为恐惧,因为疼痛——所有这些负面的观感。”The gift, which includes endowed funds, will create a neuroscience institute at Caltech named after the couple. They say it is intended for pure research, the direction of which will be decided by the university.包括捐赠资金的这份礼物将在加州理工学院创建一个以这对夫妇命名的神经科学研究所。他们表示,该所将开展纯研究,具体方向将由校方决定。This will include building a 0m biosciences facility at the university in Pasadena, California. Caltech is contributing resources to the project.这将包括在位于加州帕萨迪纳(Pasadena)的这所大学建造一座2亿美元的生物科学设施。加州理工学院将为该项目贡献资源。Thomas Rosenbaum, Caltech president, said the university and the couple shared a vision of translating scientific insights into the brain into a “deeper understanding of how human beings perceive and interact with the world”.加州理工学院院长托马斯.罗森鲍姆(Thomas Rosenbaum)表示,该校和这对夫妇共享一个愿景,那就是把对大脑的科学洞察转化为“对于人类如何感知世界、如何与世界互动的更深入理解”。The initiative is the latest high-profile donation to elite US universities by a new generation of Chinese entrepreneurs.此举是中国新一代企业家向美国精英大学作出高调捐赠的最新一例。Chinese Ivy League graduates such as Neil Shen of Sequoia China have been generous donors to their alma maters. Zhang Xin, the real estate mogul, and Pan Shiyi, her husband, signed a m gift agreement with Harvard in 2014.常春藤大学的中国毕业生,如红杉中国(Sequoia China)的沈南鹏(Neil Shen),已向各自的母校慷慨捐赠。房地产大亨张欣和她的丈夫潘石屹在2014年与哈佛大学(Harvard)签订1500万美元的“SOHO中国助学金”协议。In May, Charles Chen Yidan, Tencent co-founder, launched a .6m annual award aimed at recognising outstanding research in education.今年5月,腾讯(Tencent)联合创始人陈一丹(Charles Chen)发起了一项760万美元的年度奖,旨在表彰杰出的教育研究。Mr Chen, 43, and his wife, 40, founded their business together in 1999 and have a fortune of .43bn, according to the Hurun Report’s annual China Rich List.现年43岁的陈天桥和40岁的妻子在1999年创业。根据《胡润中国百富榜》(Hurun China Rich List),他们的身价达到34.3亿美元。Nasdaq-listed Shanda Interactive became the largest Chinese games company by market capitalisation in 2004, later spinning off its games unit Shanda Games in a separate US initial public offering that raised .04bn — the biggest US public offering for a Chinese internet business at the time.在纳斯达克(Nasdaq)上市的盛大互动(Shanda Interactive)在2004年成为中国市值最大的游戏公司,该公司后来剥离其游戏部门盛大游戏(Shanda Games),将其在美国进行首次公开发行(IPO),募得10.4亿美元,当时这是中国互联网企业在美国最大规模上市。Shanda Group sold its stake in Shanda Games in 2014. The privately owned Singapore-based investment group has about bn in net assets under management, according to Mr Chen’s LinkedIn profile.盛大集团(Shanda Group)于2014年出售其在盛大游戏所持股份。根据陈天桥的领英(LinkedIn)个人资料,这家总部位于新加坡的私有投资集团旗下管理着大约80亿美元净资产。As well as its substantial stakes in US public companies, Shanda Group is an investor in ElMindA, an Israeli start-up specialising in medical technology analysing brain function, and SpaceVR, a US start-up that aims to offer virtual reality space tourism.除了在美国一些上市公司持有大笔股份,盛大集团还投资于ElMindA(以色列初创企业,专业开发分析大脑功能的医疗技术)和SpaceVR(美国初创企业,有志提供虚拟现实太空旅游)。The couple plans to hire a chief scientist for Shanda Group to help direct future charitable giving and say the philanthropic support for brain research dovetails with an investment interest in technology that interfaces between computers and people.这对夫妇计划为盛大集团聘请一位首席科学家,由其帮助指导未来的慈善捐赠,他们表示,对大脑研究的慈善持,与他俩对计算机与人类之间接口技术的投资兴趣相吻合。“Our philanthropy is to find out the secret of the brain, but our technology is to leverage our brain,” Mr Chen said.“我们的慈善事业是了解大脑的秘密,但我们的技术是利用我们的大脑,”陈天桥说。 /201612/482060。

China#39;s three telecom operators have all vowed full support for world-class telecommunication development in Xiongan New Area.中国三大电信运营商于日前纷纷表态,将全力持在雄安新区发展世界一流的电信系统。China Mobile announced plans to build a 5G network in advance in the area and assure complete optical access as well as other topnotch telecommunication infrastructure.与此同时,中国移动还宣布将会在该地区超前规划部署5G网络,确保全光高速宽带基础网络和其它一流的电信基础设施一步到位。The largest telecommunications network operator added that it would give full support to turn Xiongan into a smart digital city and a representative of innovative growth that relies on efficient, intelligent governance.此外,这家最大的电信网络运营商还补充道,将会全力持雄安向数字经济试验区转变,建设具有代表性的依靠高效且智能管理的创新型增长市区。China Unicom promised to build a new-generation telecommunication network by allocating all its resources to guarantee the best quality.中国联通承诺,将通过统筹各类资源来保质量,建立新一代的全新电信网络。China Telecom also said it would establish gigabit network access in the special economic zone, meaning the downstream bandwidth can achieve 1G.中国电信则表示,将会实现千兆光网城市布局新区,即下游带宽可达到1G。It also plans to provide reliable infrastructure to enable the city take full advantage of information and communication technology earlier than other regions.此外,中国电信还计划建设安全可靠的基础设施,确保雄安可以比其他地区相对较早地实现对信息和通讯技术的充分利用。 /201704/504807。

Over the years, scientists have come up with a lot of ideas about why we sleep.关于我们为什么要睡觉,多年来,科学家提出了很多想法。Some have argued that it’s a way to save energy. Others have suggested that slumber provides an opportunity to clear away the brain’s cellular waste. Still others have proposed that sleep simply forces animals to lie still, letting them hide from predators.有些人认为这是一种节约能量的方法。其他人提出,睡眠为大脑提供了清除细胞废物的机会。还有一些人认为,睡眠只是迫使动物静静地躺下来,让它们可以躲过捕食者。A pair of papers published on Thursday in the journal Science offer evidence for another notion: We sleep to forget some of the things we learn each day.周四在《科学》(Science)期刊上发表的两篇论文为另一个观念提供了据:我们睡觉是为了忘记每天所学到的一些东西。In order to learn, we have to grow connections, or synapses, between the neurons in our brains. These connections enable neurons to send signals to one another quickly and efficiently. We store new memories in these networks.为了学习,我们必须增加大脑神经元之间的连接,或者叫突触。这些连接使神经元能够快速有效地在彼此之间发送信号。我们就是在这些网络之中存储新的记忆。In 2003, Giulio Tononi and Chiara Cirelli, biologists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, proposed that synapses grew so exuberantly during the day that our brain circuits got “noisy.” When we sleep, the scientists argued, our brains pare back the connections to lift the signal over the noise.2003年,威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校的生物学家朱利奥·托诺尼(Giulio Tononi)和基娅拉·奇雷利(Chiara Cirelli)提出,突触在白天生长得非常激烈,令大脑电路变得“嘈杂”。当我们睡觉时,大脑得以减少连接,这样真正的信号才可以超过噪声。In the years since, Dr. Tononi and Dr. Cirelli, along with other researchers, have found a great deal of indirect evidence to support the so-called synaptic homeostasis hypothesis.在此之后的几年里,托诺尼士和奇雷利士与其他研究者发现了大量间接据,持这一所谓的突触自稳态假说。It turns out, for example, that neurons can prune their synapses — at least in a dish. In laboratory experiments on clumps of neurons, scientists can give them a drug that spurs them to grow extra synapses. Afterward, the neurons pare back some of the growth.比如,事实明,神经元可以修剪它们的突触——至少是在实验室里。在对神经元丛进行实验室实验时,科学家给它们一种药物,刺激它们生长额外的突触。之后,神经元削减了一些生长。Other evidence comes from the electric waves released by the brain. During deep sleep, the waves slow down. Dr. Tononi and Dr. Cirelli have argued that shrinking synapses produce this change.其他据来自大脑释放的电波。在深度睡眠期间,电波减慢。 托诺尼士和奇雷利士认为,这种变化是由突触缩小带来的。Four years ago, Dr. Tononi and Dr. Cirelli got a chance to test their theory by looking at the synapses themselves. They acquired a kind of deli slicer for brain tissue, which they used to shave ultrathin sheets from a mouse’s brain.四年前,托诺尼士和奇雷利士得以通过观察突触本身来检验他们的理论。他们获得了一种用于脑组织的切片机,用它从小鼠的大脑上得到超薄切片。Luisa de Vivo, an assistant scientist working in their lab, led a painstaking survey of tissue taken from mice, some awake and others asleep. She and her colleagues determined the size and shape of 6,920 synapses in total.该实验室的助理科学家路易莎·德·维沃(Luisa de Vivo)对这些从小鼠大脑取出的组织进行了精心研究,一些小鼠是醒着的,其他一些处于睡眠状态。她和同事们确定了6920个突触的大小和形状。The synapses in the brains of sleeping mice, they found, were 18 percent smaller than in awake ones. “That there’s such a big change over all is surprising,” Dr. Tononi said.他们发现,睡眠小鼠脑中的突触比清醒小鼠的突触小18%。“整体而言,那个巨大的变化颇为惊人,”托诺尼士说。The second study was led by Graham H. Diering, a postdoctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Diering and his colleagues set out to explore the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis by studying the proteins in mouse brains. “I’m really coming at it from this nuts-and-bolts place,” Dr. Diering said.第二项研究由约翰霍普金斯大学士后研究员格雷厄姆·H·迪林(Graham H. Diering)领导。迪林士和同事们通过研究小鼠脑中的蛋白质来探索突触自稳态假说。“我真的是从这种细节出发来研究这个问题的,”迪林士说。In one experiment, Dr. Diering and his colleagues created a tiny window through which they could peer into mouse brains. Then he and his colleagues added a chemical that lit up a surface protein on brain synapses.在一个实验中,迪林士和同事们创建了一个小窗口,通过它可以窥看小鼠的大脑。然后,他和同事们在小鼠大脑内添加了一种化学物质,能够点亮脑突触上的表面蛋白。Looking through the window, they found that the number of surface proteins dropped during sleep. That decline is what you would expect if the synapses were shrinking.透过窗口,他们发现,在睡眠期间突触表面蛋白的数量下降。如果突触缩小,这种下降就应该会出现。Dr. Diering and his colleagues then searched for the molecular trigger for this change. They found that hundreds of proteins increase or decrease inside of synapses during the night. But one protein in particular, called Homer1A, stood out.迪林士和同事们随后开始寻找这种变化的分子触发因素。他们发现,在突触内,有数百种蛋白质在夜间增加或减少。但有一种名为Homer1A的蛋白质格外突出。In earlier experiments on neurons in a dish, Homer1A proved to be important for paring back synapses. Dr. Diering wondered if it was important in sleep, too.在对神经元进行的早期实验室实验中,Homer1A被明在突触减少过程中发挥了重要作用。迪林士想知道它是否在睡眠中也很重要。To find out, he and his colleagues studied mice genetically engineered so that they couldn’t make Homer1A proteins. These mice slept like ordinary mice, but their synapses didn’t change their proteins like the ones in ordinary mice.为了发现这一点,他和同事研究了经基因工程改造、不能制造Homer1A蛋白的小鼠。这些小鼠可以像普通小鼠一样睡觉,但是它们的突触不像在普通小鼠中那样改变其蛋白质。Dr. Diering’s research suggests that sleepiness triggers neurons to make Homer1A and ship it into their synapses. When sleep arrives, Homer1A turns on the pruning machinery.迪林士的研究表明,困倦引发神经元制造Homer1A,并将其运送到突触。当睡眠开始时,Homer1A也打开了它的修剪机制。To see how this pruning machinery affects learning, the scientists gave regular mice a memory test. They put the animals in a room where they got a mild electric shock if they walked over one section of the floor.为了观察这种修剪机制如何影响学习,科学家对普通小鼠进行了记忆测试。他们把这些动物放在一个房间里,如果它们走到地板的某一部分,就会受到轻微的电击。That night, the scientists injected a chemical into the brains of some of the mice. The chemical had been shown to block neurons in dishes from pruning their synapses.当天晚上,科学家将一种化学物质注入若干小鼠的脑中。在实验室中,这种化学物质已被明可以阻止神经元减少其突触。The next day, the scientists put all the mice back in the chamber they had been in before. Both groups of mice spent much of the time frozen, fearfully recalling the shock.第二天,科学家把所有小鼠都放回之前所在的房间。两组小鼠大部分时间都是一动不动,恐惧地回忆起电击的记忆。But when the researchers put the mice in a different chamber, they saw a big difference. The ordinary mice sniffed around curiously. The mice that had been prevented from pruning their brain synapses during sleep, on the other hand, froze once again.但当研究人员把老鼠放入不同的房间,他们看到了很大的区别。普通组的老鼠好奇地到处嗅着。另一边,在睡眠期间被阻止减少大脑突触的小鼠再次一动不动。Dr. Diering thinks that the injected mice couldn’t narrow their memories down to the particular chamber where they had gotten the shock. Without nighttime pruning, their memories ended up fuzzy.迪林士认为,受注射的小鼠不能把记忆缩小到它们遭受电击的特定房间范围内。没有夜间的修剪,它们的记忆最后变得模糊。In their own experiment, Dr. Tononi and his colleagues found that the pruning didn’t strike every neuron. A fifth of the synapses were unchanged. It’s possible that these synapses encode well-established memories that shouldn’t be tampered with.在他们自己的实验中,托诺尼士和同事们发现,修剪并不是针对每个神经元。1/5的突触没有改变。有可能这些突触之中编码了已经良好地建立起来、且不应被修改的记忆。“You can forget in a smart way,” Dr. Tononi said.“你可以用一种聪明的方式来忘记,”托诺尼士说。Other researchers cautioned that the new findings weren’t definitive proof of the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis.其他研究者警告说,新的发现并不能为突触自稳态假说提供决定性的据。Marcos G. Frank, a sleep researcher at Washington State University in Spokane, said that it could be hard to tell whether changes to the brain at night were caused by sleep or by the biological clock. “It’s a general problem in the field,” he said.华盛顿州立大学斯波坎分校的睡眠问题研究者马科斯·G·弗兰克(Marcos G. Frank)说,很难判断大脑夜间的变化是由睡眠还是生物钟引起的。“这是该领域的一个普遍问题,”他说。Markus H. Schmidt, of the Ohio Sleep Medicine Institute, said that while the brain might prune synapses during sleep, he questioned whether this was the main explanation for why sleep exists.俄亥俄睡眠医学研究所(Ohio Sleep Medicine Institute)的马库斯·H·施密特(Markus H. Schmidt)说,虽然大脑可能在睡眠期间修剪突触,但他质疑这一点是否是睡眠存在的主要原因。“The work is great,” he said of the new studies, “but the question is, is this a function of sleep or is it the function?”“这项工作很好,”他谈起这项新研究时说,“但问题是,这是睡眠的功能之一,还是它的主要功能?”Many organs, not just the brain, seem to function differently during sleep, Dr. Schmidt pointed out. The gut appears to make many new cells, for example.不仅大脑,许多器官在睡眠时的功能似乎都不一样,施密特士指出。比如肠道似乎就会产生许多新的细胞。Dr. Tononi said that the new findings should prompt a look at what current sleeping drugs do in the brain. While they may be good at making people sleepy, it’s also possible that they may interfere with the pruning required for forming memories.托诺尼士说,新的发现可以促使人们审视目前的睡眠药物在大脑中发挥什么作用。虽然它们可以让人们感到困意,但它们也可能干扰形成记忆所需的突触修剪。“You may actually work against yourself,” Dr. Tononi said.“你可能其实是在损害自己,”托诺尼士说。In the future, sleep medicines might precisely target the molecules involved in sleep, ensuring that synapses get properly pruned.在将来,睡眠药物或许可以精确瞄准参与睡眠的分子,确保突触得到适当的修剪。“Once you know a little bit of what happens at the ground-truth level, you can get a better idea of what to do for therapy,” Dr. Tononi said.“一旦你知道一点基本事实层面发生的情况,就可以得到更好的治疗思路,”托诺尼士说。 /201702/491003。

A Japanese tombstone company is using the augmented reality technology made popular by Pokemon Go to allow mourners to catch pre-recorded messages from their deceased loved ones in cemeteries.一家日本墓葬公司正使用增强现实技术使得吊唁者能够在墓地里收到他们去世的爱人或亲人生前录制的视频。口袋妖怪的风行使得增强现实技术近来很流行。Named Spot Message, the new Pokemon Go-inspired app is the brainchild of Yoshiyuki Katori, president of Ryoshin Sekizai, a tombstone company based in Katori, Japan’s Chiba prefecture. 这款受口袋妖怪启迪的新手机软件叫做Spot Message,是一家日本墓葬公司Ryoshin Sekizai董事长Yoshiyuki Katori的创意。该公司位于日本千叶县。He claims that the new technology realizes his longtime dream of preserving realistic memories of the dearly departed for the living. 他声称增强现实技术实现了他长久以来的梦想,为活着的人保留去世之人的真实影像作为回忆。My uncle, who ran a paint store, died eight years ago after he fell from a tall structure at work, 33-year-old Katori said.33岁的Katori说:我的叔叔曾经经营了一家油漆店。八年前他在一栋高层建筑上工作时不幸坠落身亡。His death was so sudden, and it shattered the lives of his family. 他的去世太过突然,使他的家庭深受打击。I also respected him a lot, so I would often visit his grave, consulting with him in my mind whenever I had issues concerning my business. 我也很尊敬他,所以我经常会去墓地看望他。I wondered how comforting it would be if he could talk to me at his grave, with messages like ‘How are you doing?’ and ‘Hang in there.’ 每当我生意上有问题时,我也会在脑中和他对话,向他请教。如果他能在墓前和我说说话,问问我‘最近过得如何?’对我说‘坚持下去。’这对我来说会是极大的安慰。His desire to hear his uncle’s words at his grave inspired the Japanese entrepreneur to use augmented reality to plant pre-recorded messages from the dead at their graves and other places dear to them, for their living friends and family to discover using their smartphones.他渴望在墓地听到他叔叔的讲话,于是这给了这位日本企业家灵感:利用增强现实技术将逝者事前录制好的信息植入在各自的墓碑前以及其他对他们有意义的地方,逝者的朋友及家人可以用手机在这些地方收到这些信息。The Spot Message app is aimed at people looking to leave s and photos for their loved-ones to discover after they’ve passed away and mixes virtual images with real-life landscapes, just like Pokemon Go. Spot Message的目标人群是那些希望在死后为他们的爱人、亲人留下视频和照片的人。和口袋妖怪一样,这里的虚拟图像和真实环境相结合。However, Katori adds that his service can also be used for other purposes. For example, a husband can plant a message at the place where he proposed, to be discovered by her on their anniversary, or for mountain climbers to leave congratulatory messages for fellow climbers.然而,Katori补充说到他的务也可以用在其他用途上。假如丈夫想在结婚周年纪念日给妻子礼物,他可以在当初求婚的地方留下惊喜信息。或者登山者可以在山上为后来的登山同伴留下祝贺信息。Spot Message is free to download, and users can submit up to 10 messages simply by registering. Spot Message现在可以免费下载,用户只需注册就可以上传最多十条信息。For a larger storage capacity on the company’s cloud servers and up to 30 messages that they can share with up to 200 people, users have to pay a fee.如果想要在此公司的云务器上获取更大的储存容量,用户需要付费,这样他们最多就可以上传30条信息,与多达200人分享这些信息。The augmented reality app was launched on Monday for Android, but an iPhone version will also be available in September.这款增强现实应用于星期一在安卓市场上线,苹果版也将在九月上线。 /201609/464739。

Having a cold beer after a hot bath is a nightly ritual for many Japanese, and now the country has found a way to further indulge -- soaking in the suds themselves.In Hakone Kowakien Yunessun, a mountainous hot spring resort just a day trip from Tokyo, a spa park is offering a bathtub, shaped like a beer mug, filled with heated amber water and white foam with the aroma of hops and barley.The resort is also pouring and spraying real beer into the bath and onto the customers three times a day until December 31.The beer bath installation, which began late last month, pays homage to the "beer fights" of professional baseball season winners."We wanted ordinary people to enjoy the fun," the spa said in a statement.The facility says the beer bath moisturises and cleanses the skin.The theme park-style facility, which features various tubs of hot spring water, annually celebrates the release of the Beaujolais Nouveau with a real sommelier pouring the fresh wine into its open-air "wine spa."The Yunessun also offers baths of coffee, tea and Japanese sake. 很多日本人习惯晚上洗个热水澡后喝杯冰镇啤酒。现在,日本人又多了一个畅享啤酒的方式——“啤酒浴”。距离东京仅有一天路程的神奈川县箱根町是一个多山的温泉胜地。这里的一家温泉公园设了一种啤酒杯状的浴缸,浴缸内盛满了散发着啤酒花和大麦清香的热啤酒。工作人员还将啤酒倒进浴缸并向客人身上喷洒,这一务每天提供三次,截止到12月31日。“温泉啤酒浴”务于上个月末推出,其灵感主要来自于职业棒球的赛季冠军们“洒啤酒”庆祝胜利的做法。温泉公园在一份声明中说:“我们想让普通人也体会一下这种乐趣。”据介绍,洗啤酒浴能够清洁并滋润肌肤。该公园提供各式的“主题温泉浴”设施。在一年一度的宝祖利新酒上市庆祝仪式上,一名斟酒员会将新鲜的酒倒进公园的露天“酒温泉”里。箱根町温泉胜地还向游客提供咖啡浴、茶浴及日本米酒浴。 /200803/29225。