原标题: 泰州男性治疗软下疳医院飞度搜病网
Floods under Antarctica ice speeding glacious into sea南极冰层下洪流加速冰河流入海中Scientists unveiled the first direct evidence that massive floods deep below Antarcticas ice cover are accelerating the flow of glaciers into the sea. How quickly these huge bodies of ice slide off the Antarctic and Greenland land masses into the ocean help determine the speed at which sea levels rise.科学家首度公布资料,明南极冰川下的巨大洪流正使冰川加速流向海洋。这些体积庞大的冰川正从南极大陆和格陵兰岛流向海洋,它们漂移的速度直接决定了海平面升高的速度。The stakes are enormous: an increase measured in tens of centimeters (inches) could wreak havoc for hundreds of millions of people living in low-lying deltas and island nations around the world.这导致的后果将惊心动魄:即使海平面只上升几十厘米,就足以对世界各地居住在低海拔三角洲和岛国的人民造成毁灭性灾难。Researchers discovered only recently that inaccessible subglacial lakes in Antarctica periodically shed huge quantities of water. They discovered that during the same 14-month period that 1.7 cubic kilometers (0.4 cubic miles) of water cascaded through subglacial waterways, the 75-kilometer (45-mile) long glacier downstream picked up speed, moving about 10 percent faster.研究者近日发现,在南极冰层下隐秘的冰下湖泊会周期性的倾泻大量水流。他们发现在同样的14个月期间,冰层下湖泊溢出了1.7立方千米的水(相当于0.4立方英里),75公里(相当于45英里)长的伯德冰川的移动速度加快了10%。;Our findings provide direct evidence that an active lake drainage system can cause large and rapid changes in glacier dynamics,; the researchers concluded.研究人员由此得出结论:“活跃的湖泊排水系统会导致冰川运动出现大规模、快速的变化,我们的研究结果为此提供了直接据。”The study adds to growing scientific concern about the pace at which glaciers are melting into the seas. The ice sheet that sits atop Greenland, for example, contains enough water to raise world ocean levels by seven meters (23 feet). Even the gloomiest global warming predictions do not include such a scenario.该研究进一步加剧了科学家对冰川融化速度的担忧。例如,光是格陵兰岛表面覆盖的冰层溶化后就能使海平面上升7米(相当于23英尺)。即使最悲观的全球气候变暖预言也没有报道这样的情形。201206/187505

Science and Technolgy科技The science of justice司法的学问I think its time we broke for lunch…该吃午餐了Court rulings depend partly on when the judge last had a snack法庭判决结果一定程度上取决于法官上一次吃点心的时间AROUND the world, courthouses are adorned with a statue of a blindfolded woman holding a set of scales and a sword: Justice personified.世界各地的法院都装饰有一尊女子的雕像,这个女人被蒙住双眼,手持一架天平和一把剑。Her sword stands for the power of the court, her scales for the competing claims of the petitioners.她是正义的化身。剑代表着法庭的权力,而天平代表着上诉人的竞争性权利主张。The blindfold (a 15th-century innovation) represents the principle that justice should be blind.眼罩(是15世纪的一项革新)代表着司法的盲目性原则。The law should be applied without fear or favour, with only cold reason and the facts of the case determining what happens to the accused.也就是说应用法律应该毫无畏惧和偏袒之心,只有冷静的推理和案件事实才能决定如何处理被告。Lawyers, though, have long suspected that such lofty ideals are not always achieved in practice, even in well run judicial systems free from political meddling.然而,律师们一直以来都怀疑在实践中这种崇高的理想是否总能实现,就连在那些不受政治干涉、运转良好的司法体系里都是如此。Justice, say the cynics, is what the judge had for breakfast. Now they have proof.犬儒主义者说:司法就是法官的早餐。而且现在他们有了据。A paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes how Shai Danziger of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and his colleagues followed eight Israeli judges for ten months as they ruled on over 1,000 applications made by prisoners to parole boards.美国国家科学院学报一篇文章描述了内盖夫(西南亚巴勒斯坦南部地区)本-古里安大学的舍夷?丹齐格和他的几个同事追踪8位以色列法官10个月的事情,在这10个月里法官们裁判了囚犯向假释裁决委员会提出的1000多分申请。The plaintiffs were asking either to be allowed out on parole or to have the conditions of their incarceration changed.申请人要么请求准许假释要么请求改善狱中居住条件。The team found that, at the start of the day, the judges granted around two-thirds of the applications before them.调查小队发现,早晨法官所阅申请的约2/3得到了批准。As the hours passed, that number fell sharply (see chart), eventually reaching zero.而随着中午的临近,批准的数量急剧减少(如图所示),最终接近于0。But clemency returned after each of two daily breaks, during which the judges retired for food.但是在每天的两餐休息时间过后,仁慈又重新降临。The approval rate shot back up to near its original value, before falling again as the day wore on.批准率回到了接近于早晨的水平,并随着时间的消逝再次下跌。To be sure, mealtimes were not the only thing that predicted the outcome of the rulings.当然,用餐时间并非预测判决结果的唯一因素。Offenders who appeared prone to recidivism (in this case those with previous convictions) were more likely to be turned down, as were those who were not in a rehabilitation programme.那些看起来容易再犯的犯人(有前科的)更可能被拒,那些没有参与罪犯改過自新项目的也是一样。Happily, neither the sex nor the ethnicity of the prisoners seemed to matter to the judges. Nor did the length of time the offenders had aly spent in prison, nor even the severity of their crimes (as assessed by a separate panel of legal experts).而令人高兴的是,据一个司法专家组成的独立小组评定,法官似乎不考虑罪犯的性别、种族、入狱时间长短甚至是他们罪行的严重程度。But after controlling for recidivism and rehabilitation programmes, the meal-related pattern remained.剔除了累犯和改过自新计划这些因素之后,与就餐相关的模式依然存在。The researchers offer two hypotheses for this rise in grumpiness.研究人员就这种暴躁情绪的产生给出了两种假设。One is that blood-sugar level is the crucial variable. This, though, predicts that the precise amount of time since the judge last ate will be what matters.其一是血糖浓度是关键的变量,可是这样就有人会猜测距法官上一次用餐的准确时间是重要的因素。In fact, it is the number of cases he has heard since his last break, not the number of hours he has been sitting, which best matches the data.而事实上,与调查数据最匹配的不是法官坐在那儿工作的时间长短,而是他上一次休息用餐后所审理的案件数量。That is consistent with a second theory, familiar from other studies, that decision making is mentally taxing and that, if forced to keep deciding things, people get tired and start looking for easy answers.这就和第二种假设一致起来,即决策是一项耗费心神的劳动,如果人们被迫一直做决定,那他们会变得疲惫而开始寻找简单的解决办法,这是其他研究也得出的结论。In this case, the easy answer is to maintain the status quo by denying the prisoner’s request.既然如此,那简单的解决办法就是拒绝犯人的申请,维持现状。Two further findings buttress the idea that it is the psychological load of decision making which matters.还有另外两个发现可以持这种精神负担作用的观点。First, the average unfavourable decision (unfavourable to the prisoner, that is) took less time to arrive at (5.2 minutes) than the average favourable one (7.4 minutes).首先,通常作不利的决定(也就是不利于犯人的决定)比作有利的决定花费的时间短,前者约为5.2分钟,后者约为7.4分钟。Second, it also took more time to explain.其次,后者所花费的解释时间也更长。Written verdicts in favourable rulings averaged 90 words, compared with just 47 for unfavourable ones.有利决定的书面判决通常有90个单词,而不利判决书只有47个单词。In truth, these results, though disturbing, are unsurprising.事实上,尽管这些调查结果令人不安,却是意料之中的事。Judges may be trained to confine themselves to the legally relevant facts before them.法官接受的训练是将自己限制在面前的法律事实范围内。But they are also human, and thus subject to all sorts of cognitive biases which can muddy their judgment.但他们也是凡人,因而也会让各种认知偏见模糊了他们的判断力。Other fields are familiar with human imperfectibility, and take steps to ameliorate it.人性的弱点在其他领域也很常见,人们会采取措施改进这一点。Pilots, for instance, are given checklists to follow, partly in order to combat the effects of fatigue.例如飞行员需要遵循一些清单,其部分原因是为了抵抗疲劳。Lorry drivers in the European Union are not allowed to drive for more than four and a half hours without taking a break.欧盟也不允许卡车司机连续驾驶4.5小时以上。Dr Danziger’s co-author, Jonathan Levav of Columbia University in New York, wonders whether the law should consider similar arrangements.丹齐格教授的合著者哥伦比亚大学的乔奈森?勒瓦夫设想司法界是否也能考虑作类似的安排。Some, of course, aly do.当然,有些地方已经这样做了。English judges, legendary for their prandial proclivities, are way ahead of him.英国的法官早就想到了这点,所以他们因爱好吃饭而闻名。 /201210/205660

Blackcaps are small songbirds that breed in Central Europe. Fifty years ago, most blackcaps went south for the winter to Spain or Portugal. But since the 1960s more and more blackcaps have started wintering in Britain and Ireland. By 2003, blackcaps were seen perched at one in every three backyard bird feeders in Britain! But why did so many blackcaps change their winter vacation location?黑头莺是一种体型较小的鸟类,主要生活在欧洲中部。50年前,大多数黑头莺每到冬季就会迁徙到南部的西班牙或者葡萄牙。但是自20世纪60年代起,越来越多的黑头莺开始飞往英国和爱尔兰过冬。到2003年,有三分之一的英国家庭后院里的喂食器上出现过黑头莺。然而是什么促使如此多的黑头莺另择越冬地呢?The direction birds migrate is coded in their genes. Each population of birds has an average direction they will go, but individuals can vary as much as forty degrees from the average. Although historically, the average direction for blackcaps was towards Portugal, a few birds genes pointed them in a slightly different direction and they ended up in Britain.鸟类迁徙的方向由基因决定。每个鸟群迁徙时都有个平均方向,但个体可以在偏离这个方向40度范围内活动。尽管历史上黑头莺迁徙的平均方向是朝着葡萄牙,但还是有不少黑头莺定位稍有偏差,结果就来到了英国。But for the numbers of blackcaps wintering in Britain to change so dramatically, there must be some significant advantage to fly north rather than south. Perhaps the benefit is simply from the shorter, less taxing flight to Britain. Or maybe it’s because Britain has many bird lovers that stock backyard birdfeeders.在英国过冬的黑头莺数量激增,至于它们选择飞往北方而不是南方,其中肯定有一些显著的优势。也许是因为英国比较近,不必大费周折飞那么远,也许是因为英国有许多鸟类爱好者,在后院到处悬挂喂食器。But researchers from Germany and the UK believe the key difference is the shorter winter days in Britain. Shorter days affect migration and breeding behavior, so British birds return to summer breeding grounds about ten days earlier than birds that went south.但来自德国和英国的研究人员认为关键区别在于英国冬季的白昼较短。白昼短这一点可以影响到鸟类的迁移和繁殖行为,所以,在英国过冬的鸟类会比飞往南方的鸟类提前十天返回夏日的繁殖场所。This ten-day head start lets British migrants claim the best territories and start breeding sooner. Females paired with British males laid more eggs and hatched more chicks than those mated to southern birds. Each year, blackcaps with genes orienting them towards Britain pass on those genes to more chicks. And so the number of blackcaps with the disposition to fly to Britain steadily increases.开头的十天会保这些候鸟们占领最好的领地,迅速开始育下一代。并且,与在南方配对的雌鸟相比,与英国的雄鸟配对的雌鸟产蛋更多,孵出的雏鸟也更多。年复一年,黑头莺会把向英国迁徙的基因一代代传下去。因此,飞往英国过冬的黑头莺数量急剧增长。原文译文属!201212/215976Would you eat a y meal from the fridge rather than cook from scratch? Have you been doing internet shopping rather than going to the stores? What cant you be bothered to do?您是否情愿吃冰箱里的即食食品,也懒得亲自下厨做饭呢?您是否更乐于网上购物,而懒得去逛街?还有什么其他您懒得去做的事情呢?A study into how lazy British people are has found more than half of adults are so idle theyd catch the lift rather than climb two flights of stairs.Just over 2000 people were quizzed by independent researchers at Nuffield Health, Britains largest health charity. The results were startling.一项关于“英国人有多懒”的调查发现,超过半数以上的成年人非常懒惰,就算住在二楼,他们宁肯坐电梯也懒得去爬那两段楼梯。有超过两千人接受了英国最大的健康慈善机构——纳菲尔德健康中心的独立调查员的调查,调查结果令人大吃一惊。About one in six people surveyed said if their remote control was broken, they would continue watching the same channel rather than get up. More than one third of those questioned said they would not run to catch a bus. Worryingly, of the 654 respondents with children, 64% said they were often too tired to play with them. This led the report to conclude that its no wonder that one in six children in the UK are classified as obese before they start school.调查显示,如果遥控器坏了,大约六分之一的人宁肯继续看原来的频道也懒得起身去换台。超过三分之一的被调查者称,他们不会跑着去赶一班公交。令人担忧的是,654名有孩子的受访者中有64%的人声称他们经常由于疲惫而懒得陪孩子们玩。调查报告最后总结道,难怪英国每六个学龄前儿童就有一个患有肥胖症。Dr Sarah Dauncey, medical director of Nuffield Health, said: ;People need to get fitter, not just for their own sake, but for the sake of their families, friends and evidently their pets too.If we dont start to take control of this problem, a whole generation will become too unfit to perform even the most rudimentary of tasks.”纳菲尔德健康中心的医疗顾问萨拉·当西士说,“人们的生活有必要变得更健康,这不仅仅是为他们自身考虑,也是为他们的家人、朋友、当然还有他们的宠物考虑。如果我们现在还不开始采取措施控制这个问题,整个一代人将会因过度不健康而丧失完成最基本任务能力。”And Scotlands largest city, Glasgow, was shamed as the most indolent city in the UK, with 75% surveyed admitting they do not get enough exercise, followed closely by Birmingham and Southampton, both with 67%.在关于体育运动的调查中,苏格兰最大的城市格拉斯哥有75%的人承认他们缺少足够的体育锻炼,因而格拉斯哥市被评为英国最懒惰的城市。紧邻其后的是伯明翰和南安普敦,均有67%的人承认缺少足够的体育锻炼。 The results pose serious challenges for the National Health Service, where obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease and cancer have been on a steady increase for the past 40 years and are costing billions of pounds every year.调查结果给英国国民健康务体系提出了严重挑战,在过去40年来,像心脏病和癌症这些与肥胖相关的疾病一直呈稳步上升态势,而每年的医疗投入和花费都高达数十亿英镑。原文译文属!201301/222356

Science and technology科学与技术The fight against AIDS对抗艾滋病HIVs slow retreat艾滋病的缓慢退却One of the worlds worst plagues is giving ground抗击艾滋病:显现曙光THE timing of the popes much-discussed change of position on the use of condoms to prevent the sp of HIV was surely no coincidence.近期罗马教皇改变了其对于使用避套以防止艾滋病传播的立场,引来一片议论。这个时间绝非巧合。He made it on November 21st—ten days before World AIDS Day and two before UNAIDS, the ed Nations body charged with combating the epidemic, released its latest report on the state of the battle.他是本月21日向外界宣布的—恰逢世界艾滋病日前十天,也是在两天后,负责抗击艾滋病的联合国机构—联合国艾滋病规划署发布了其最新的艾滋病防治工作报告。That report carries good news.这份报告带来了好消息。Though some 33m people are infected, the rate of new infections is falling—down from 3.1m a year a decade ago to 2.6m in .纵使艾滋病毒感染人数已达3300万,但新增感染者的速度正在放慢—从十年前的每年感染310万人降至年的260万人。Moreover, as the map shows, the figure is falling fastest in many of the most heavily infected countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and South and South-East Asia.此外,从这张地图上可以看出,正是那些感染最严重的国家新增感染者的速度下降最快,尤其是撒哈拉以南的非洲国家以及南亚、东南亚国家。The reason is a combination of behavioural change, a big reduction in mother-to-child transmission at birth and during breast-feeding, and the roll-out of drug treatment for those aly infected.此中原因是多方面的:包括性行为方式的改变,母婴分娩传播与哺乳传播的大幅减少,以及已感染者对毒品的戒除。Besides prolonging life, anti-HIV drugs make those taking them less likely to pass the virus on.抗艾滋药物除了可以延长生命,还可降低用者将病毒向他人传播的几率。More than 5m people in poor and middle-income countries are now on such drugs, though Michel Sidibe, the head of UNAIDS, says another 10m could benefit.超过500万来自贫困或中等收入国家的艾滋病患者正在用这种药物,即使这样,据联合国艾滋病规划署的负责人Michel?Sidibe说,仍有超过1000万人需要这种药物。The problem, as always, is money.资金不足始终是个问题。Dr Sidibe reckons the fight needs about billion a year to be fully effective.Sidibe士认为,抗击艾滋病每年大约需250亿美元方可全力维持。At the moment, the sum spent is around billion.但现在最高的年出只有约170亿美元。Not a bad fraction of the desideratum, but one that will be hard to sustain in the face of the worlds economic difficulties.与总需求相比这还不算太糟,但在全球经济面临困境的当下,想维持这一水平却又是个难题。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201302/227679He eventually found one, here in Ramsgate, teaching French, German, arithmetic and dictation to young boys at a school opened in this building by a Mr. William Stokes.他最终找到了一份工作,在拉姆斯哥特,他在这位威廉·斯托克斯先生的建筑开办的学校内教男孩子们法语,德语,算术和听写。This job was unpaid, just board and lodging.这份工作没有报酬,只提供食宿。But he was teaching and that pressed Vincent’s vocational buzzer.但他的教学使文森特一鸣惊人。The school was crummy, Dickensian, one might say.这所学校非常肮脏, 有人可能会说是狄更斯式的。The floors of the bedroom in which the boys slept were rotten, the windows broken.男孩们睡的卧室的地板腐朽不堪而且窗户破旧。And Vincent complained desperately about the bedbugs.而文森特对于臭虫疯狂抱怨。He did a couple of drawings out of the school window, of this view.他透过窗户外的景点画了几幅画,而这一景致。They’re rather delightful.它们相当讨人喜欢。 注:听力文本来源于普特201208/194530Science and Technology Mimicry The first sparrowhawk of spring科技 模仿 春天第一只雀鹰To obtain better access to warbler nests, cuckoos mimic raptors为了更好地抢占莺的巢穴,杜鹃通常会模仿成猛禽的样子THE resemblance between cuckoos and sparrowhawks has been a cause of comment since ancient times.杜鹃和雀鹰之间的相似性自古以来就是引发的原因。As the photographs above show, the two birds (cuckoo on the left, sparrowhawk on the right) are similar in size, shape and plumage, and both have a conspicuous pattern of bars on their breasts—a pattern found on many species of hawk, but not on the cuckoos relatives.正如上面的照片显示的两只鸟(左侧的是杜鹃,右侧的是雀鹰),它们在大小,形状和羽毛上都很相似,二者的胸前都有突出的条纹——许多鹰类都有这种类型的条纹,但杜鹃的亲戚中却没有。Until now, though, no one has thought to take that observation any further, and test whether the one is truly mimicking the other.虽然现在还没有人对此进行更深入的观察,并实杜鹃是否真的在模仿对方。Cuckoos would have good reason to do so, since the warblers and other small birds in whose nests they lay their eggs are understandably frightened of hawks, and give them a wide berth.杜鹃有很好的理由去模仿鹰,由于莺和其它的小型鸟类在它们的巢中产卵,自然这些小型鸟类就很害怕鹰,并且对鹰敬而远之。Such leeway would make it easier for a female cuckoo to lay where she chose.这样的空当就给了雌杜鹃自由选择巢穴产卵的机会。Nick Davies and Justin Welbergen, a pair of ornithologists at Cambridge University, have now corrected that omission.尼克?戴维斯(Nick Davies)贾斯汀?韦伯尔根(Justin Welbergen)是剑桥大学的鸟类学专家,它们现在补充了这种遗漏。They have tested the idea that cuckoos mimic hawks—or, at least, that warblers think cuckoos look hawklike.它们已经实了杜鹃会模仿鹰——或者说,至少在莺看来,杜鹃非常像鹰。As they report in the latest edition of Behavioral Ecology, they have found that it is true, but only up to a point.就像它们在最新一期的Behavioral Ecology上报道的那样,它们已经发现这是正确的,但至少在某种程度上可以这么讲。To carry out their test, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen put stuffed birds near reed-warbler nests, to observe the nestholders reactions.为了进行它们的测试,戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士将几种鸟类标本放到了莺的芦苇巢附近,用来观察这些巢主人的反应。They used three species: sparrowhawks (which are a direct threat to a warblers life), cuckoos (which do not harm adult warblers, but do stop them reproducing successfully) and doves (included as a control, since they pose no threat at all).他们用了三种鸟类:雀鹰(直接威胁莺生命的猛禽),杜鹃(不会威胁成年莺类,但是会顺利地影响莺类的繁殖),还有鸽子(只是作为一个对照,它们不会对莺类造成任何威胁)。The breast of each stuffed bird was adorned with a piece of white silk.每种鸟类的胸前都用一块白色的丝绸装饰。Some pieces of silk were left plain. Others had bars drawn on them with a felt-tip pen.一些丝绸偏左放置。其它条纹则用记号笔画制而成。Once the stuffed birds were in place, the two researchers recorded the reactions of the nestholders.一旦将这些鸟类标本放置好,这两位研究人员就记录巢主人的反应。In particular, they measured how closely the nestholders were willing to approach the stuffed intruder, and also how noisily the intruder was mobbed, in an attempt to drive it away.他们会专门评估这些巢主人对于不速之客的接近程度,以及围攻入侵者并试图将其赶走的激烈场景。The barring, they found, was crucial.他们发现了一个非常关键的例外。Though the warblers could clearly tell the difference between the species (they mobbed the cuckoos most and stayed farthest away from the sparrowhawks),虽然莺类可以很清楚地分辨出这些鸟类的不同(它们主要围攻杜鹃,最大限度地远离雀鹰),in the cases of all three types of stuffed bird those decorated with stripes were approached more cautiously and mobbed less than those without stripes.对于那些装饰了条纹的三种鸟类标本,它们更谨慎地接触,并且围攻那些没有条纹的鸟类。Hawk-like stripes do, then, provoke what is, from a cuckoos point of view, the desired reaction:从杜鹃的角度来看,鹰状条纹所起的主要作用就是它所希望看到的:less of the sort of behaviour that is likely to interfere with her egg-laying mission.如果缺乏这种行为会则会影响到杜鹃的产卵任务。Not perfect mimicry, but good enough to be useful.虽然这种模仿不甚高明,但已经足够用了。Probably, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen have caught cuckoo and warbler in the middle of an evolutionary arms race.也许戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士已经注意到了杜鹃和莺正处于一个进化的军备竞赛中。Come back in 10,000 years and cuckoos and sparrowhawks may be indistinguishable.回到10000年前,杜鹃和雀鹰或许就难以分辨了。 /201212/216885

The first time Congress dealt with any issue pertaining to unclean air was in 1955. Prior to that, states had passed their own legislation dealing with the problems of impure air… most of it excess smoke from burning fields and clearing forests. But as industry and our nation grew, more people and more land were exposed to dirty air emissions from industrial smokestacks and automobile exhaust.国会处理关于空气污染的问题始于1955年。在此之前,各州自己制定法律,用以解决空气污染问题。过量的烟雾大多产生于田地燃烧和森林砍伐。但随着工业发展,国力增强,越来越多的人和土地暴露在工业烟囱和汽车排放的污浊空气中。By the 1960s, environmental issues had become a public concern, as scientific studies linked air pollution to specific health issues. The Clean Air Act of 1963 marked the beginning of federally funded air quality research programs to deal with increasing amounts of smog. Two years later, it was amended to include cars as a source of pollution. The Clean Air Act of 1970, the year the EPA was established, was even more robust, and subsequent amendments in 1977 and 1990 addressed ozone depletion and acid rain.到1960年,环境问题备受公众关注,科学研究也将空气污染与具体的健康问题联系起来。1963年的空气洁净法令成为联邦政府提供资助,进行空气质量研究以处理日益增加的烟雾的开端。两年后,这项法案的修正案将汽车纳入污染源范畴。环保署成立那年颁布的1970年空气洁净法令内容更加充实。1977以及1990年的后继修正案中重点提到了臭氧层破坏和酸雨的危害。Enforcing clean air standards has helped control pollution and reduce health hazards over the years, but the process of improving and amending this Act to keep our air clean is on—going, as the costs to industry must be weighed against the benefits to the environment. The Clean Air Act—one of the most complex and extensive pieces of federal environmental legislation—remains very much a work in progress.近年来,洁净空气法规的实行在控制污染和减少对人类健康的危害方面起到促进作用。然而,改进、修订这条法令的进程还在继续,因为良好环境带来的好处必须要与工业的损失相抗衡。作为联邦环境法律中最复杂,范围最广的条例,空气洁净法令还在如火如荼地进行着。原文译文属!201210/204450

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