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来源:飞度咨询健康管家    发布时间:2017年10月18日 22:51:00    编辑:admin         

Close friends and family are more likely than acquaintances or strangers to catch someone yawning, Livescience.com reported.据热点科学网站报道,一项新的研究表明,一个人如果打了一个哈欠,他的亲密朋友和家人比其他人或陌生人更容易跟着打。A new study suggests this yawning contagion is, in part, the result of empathy, in which we attempt to see things from another person#39;s angle and respond to that person#39;s emotions.研究者称,这种打哈欠的传染,部分是由于共感作用,也就是说,我们试图去从对方的角度看待问题,并对对方的情绪做出回应。While yawns do not seem to have a connection with any particular emotion (unlike, say, smiles, which could indicate happiness), in some ways we are forming an emotional connection by mimicking a yawn, Matthew Campbell of Emory University said.埃默里大学的马修;坎贝尔认为,哈欠似乎不与任何一种特殊的情绪相关,所以在某种程度上,我们通过跟着对方打哈欠,或其它的表达方式,来形成一种情绪上的共鸣。By mimicking the yawn we become better able to understand how tired, perhaps, or bored the other person is. 通过跟着对方打哈欠,我们能更好地理解和感觉对方有多辛苦,或者说多无聊。 /201202/169934。

When it comes to bugs like bacteria and parasites, we#39;ve been trained to think that less is better. But there are some good guys in the microbial world — bugs that do the unglamorous work of keeping us regular and helping to relieve a range of disorders from diarrhea to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Now, a new study suggests that the same microbes may even help us stay slim.当谈到细菌和寄生虫的时候,我们习惯性的都认为越少越好。 实际上在微生物界中有一些好虫子的,它们做着枯燥无聊的工作来维持我们的身体正常运转,还能预防从腹泻到肠道紊乱综合症的病症。 现在新的研究发现这些微生物甚至帮助我们保持苗条。In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, researchers at the University of Arizona and the Mayo Clinic in Arizona report a very small study of nine individuals — three of normal weight, three who were morbidly obese and three who underwent gastric bypass surgery. The team found that each group harbored a different intestinal zoo of microbes, and that following their surgery, the gastric bypass patients#39; gut bugs ended up looking much more similar to those of the normal weight patients.在一项美国国家科学院亚利桑那州大学和马奥诊所的研究者们进行的小范围试验中,有9个被观测者,三个正常体重,三个肥胖症,还有三个要做胃旁路手术的病人。 研究团队发现不同组的人体肠道中的菌群是完全不同的。在手术后,那三个有胃病的人最后的肠道菌群变的和正常体重的病人相近了。While these results are only preliminary, they do point to an entirely new way that doctors and patients might be able to tackle the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. ;This study suggests that the differences in the organisms may play at least some role in why people lose the weight they do, ; says Dr. John DiBaise, a gastroenterologist at Mayo Clinic and one of study#39;s authors. ;Ultimately, we may not only be able to manipulate the microbes of obese individuals to look like those of normal weight people, but we might also potentially be able to predict a person#39;s susceptibility to obesity.;虽然这些结论只是初级的,但它确实为医生和病人降低美国日益增长的肥胖症比率打开了一扇新的大门。作为这项研究的主要研究员,马奥诊所的胃肠病学家约翰.迪拜瑟医生说:“这项研究说明这些微生物肯定在在人们的减肥过程中扮演了什么角色。如果弄得好,我们可能不仅让胖子们的肠道菌群和正常人的一样,还可以预测一个人会不会变胖。”What might be happening, suspects DiBaise, is that each person#39;s ability to extract energy and store fat from food changes depending on which combination of bugs are living in the gut. Those who are morbidly obese, it seems, tend to nurture bugs that promote the fat storage process, which might be a factor in their excessive weight gain. The bypass patients appeared to follow a similar pattern but in the opposite direction, eating less first and then developing bugs appropriate to that diet. It#39;s not clear how the physical act of reducing food intake drives that change, nor how long-lasting the possible slimming effects of the new bug population will be.拜瑟医生怀疑,每个人吸收营养、存储脂肪的能力和自己的肠道菌群的种类组合息息相关。胖子们的似乎在肠道内饲养了一群会提高脂肪存储的微生物才造成了他们的肥胖。而那些胃旁路患者也走了相同的路,不过方向刚好相反,吃的少,也就养成了适合节食的菌群。对于运动和减少食物摄入如何影响这种变化和这些减肥效果能减肥的新菌群能坚持多久还不是很清楚。But none of this means that downing the latest probiotic yogurts, which contain certain strains of good gut bacteria, should be the next weight loss craze. For one, says DiBaise, the strains that were dominant in the normal weight people are not the same as those promoted in the popular probiotic yogurts. Second, there is no evidence that probiotic products can do anything about weight loss; the latest scientific studies have shown only that probiotics can relieve antibiotic-related diarrhea, as well as alleviating IBS and aiding regularity. ;It is interesting to look at microbial flora, ; says Lynne McFarland, an epidemiologist at the Puget Sound Veterans Administration Medical Center, who was not affiliated with the study. ;But I would not run out and eat a lot of yogurt because of this.;但是这些结果不意味着喝含有一些良性菌的最新酸牛乳会成为下一个减肥风潮。拜瑟医生说,首先,人体肠道中的菌群和算牛乳的菌群是不一样的。其次,这些产品和能不能减肥基本没啥关系。最新的研究也只是发现这些饮料可以缓解抗生素相关的腹泻,减轻肠道综合症和稳定肠道。没有参与本研究的皮热老兵健康管理医疗中心的流行病学家林恩.马克弗兰说:“观察微生物菌从是很有意思的,那我也不能因此跑出去吃一大堆酸乳酪啊!”At least, not yet. More studies are needed to follow the same people as they lose weight through diet and exercise, to see if the composition of their gut flora changes — as it did with the gastric bypass patients. What#39;s more, notwithstanding the seemingly cause-and-effect link between gut flora and weight, that relationship can be deceiving; a third factor entirely may be causing both — a diet of highly processed foods, for instance, suggests Dr. David Katz, director of the Yale Prevention Research Center. What#39;s more, says Katz: ;Regardless of the variation of gut flora in the population, the entire population is getting heavy. So probiotics might tweak one#39;s personal vulnerability to obesity, but they would not much move the big dial [on the obesity epidemic], ; he says. Still, as anyone fighting the numbers on the scale knows, every little bit helps — even something a little as a bacterium.至少,现在还不行。还需要做更多的试验。观察同一些人在节食和锻炼后他们的肠道菌群组合变化是否和那些胃旁路手术的病人的一样。 还有,尽管肠道菌群和减肥之间看似有因果关系,但这种关系也许具有欺骗性。耶鲁预防研究中心的大卫.卡茨说,可能有第三种因素同时导致了前二者,比如一份对都是高杀菌处理食物的食谱。他还说,“无视人们肠道菌群的种类变化,人们还是在变重,就算它们能减弱人对肥胖趋势,还是改变不了大趋势。”但那些和秤上表针战斗的胖子们还是要抓紧最后的稻草-哪怕这稻草只有细菌那么小。 /201307/247392。

According to a transparency report released by Google, western governments, including that of the ed States, appear to be stepping up efforts to censor Internet search results and YouTube s, CNN reported.据美国有线新闻网报道,谷歌公司日前发布透明度报告称,包括美国在内的西方国家正大力审查网络搜索结果和YouTube视频。;It#39;s alarming not only because the right to free expression is at risk, but because some of these requests are coming from countries you might not expect this from - Western democracies not typically associated with censorship,; said Dorothy Chou, a senior policy analyst at Google.谷歌高级政策分析师桃乐茜#8226;周表示:“自由言论受到威胁令人担忧,不仅如此,西方民主国家本与审查制度无缘,它们也发出请求删除言论,让人始料不及。”During the second half of 2011, U.S. agencies asked Google to remove 6,192 individual pieces of content from its search results, blog posts or archives of online s, according to the report. The tech company did comply, at least in part, with 42% of the removal requests coming from the U.S.报告称,2011年下半年,美国相关机构要求谷歌删除6192条搜索结果、客网贴、在线视频等内容,谷歌公司也的确根据要求,删除了至少42%的相关内容。The company said: ;We review each request to make sure that it complies with both the spirit and the letter of the law, and we may refuse to produce information or in some cases will try to narrow down the request.;谷歌表示:“我们会审查每份请求,保其与当地法律意旨及明文规定相一致,某些情况下,我们会拒绝提供信息或对其要求不予完全满足。” /201207/188739。

SEOUL, South Korea — Top game players in South Korea are household names. Millions of people tune in to watch game competitions on television. The largest Internet portal, Naver, has its own section covering the results.韩国首尔——最棒的玩家,在韩国是家喻户晓的人物。数百万人会在电视上观看游戏比赛。最大的门户网站Naver还会专门开辟栏目报道比赛结果。Competitive gaming is now taking off in places like the ed States, attracting thousands of people to major events. But in South Korea, more than anywhere else, it has aly oozed into mainstream culture. Couples going to game clubs is about as common as couples going to the movies.竞技目前在美国等地区刚刚流行起来,可以吸引数以千计的玩家参加大型比赛。然而韩国比其他国家更甚,它已经渗透进了主流文化。情侣一起去游戏俱乐部,与一起去电影院一样常见。Time and again, South Korea has provided glimpses of technology-related transformations before they expand globally, including widesp broadband availability and smartphone adoption. The country has also led in professional game competitions, often called e-sports, creating organized leagues, training well-financed professional teams and filling giant stadiums with frenzied fans to cheer on their favorite players.与科技相关的转变先在韩国出现,之后再扩散到全球的现象发生了一次又一次,包括宽带网络的广泛普及和智能手机的应用。在时常被称为“电子体育”(e-sports)的职业竞技领域,韩国也处于领先地位,有组织的竞技联盟应运而生,还训练了资金充裕的职业队伍,狂热的游戏迷挤满巨大的体育场,为他们喜爱的选手喝。Such excitement was on display in Seoul on Sunday, when more than 40,000 fans filled the outdoor soccer stadium used for the 2002 World Cup semifinal to watch the world championship for League of Legends, one of the world#39;s most popular games. On stage, two teams of five players sat in front of computers wielding mouse and keyboard to control fantastical characters in a campaign to destroy the opposing team#39;s base. Three huge screens displayed the action.周日,这种激动人心的场面在首尔得到了展现。超过四万名游戏迷坐满了曾经举办过2002年世界杯半决赛的露天足球场,观看《英雄联盟》(League of Legends)世界锦标赛,这是世界上最受欢迎的游戏之一。台上的两队玩家坐在电脑前,通过鼠标和键盘操控虚拟人物作战,摧毁对方的大本营。每一队都有五名队员。现场有三个巨型的屏幕显示比赛的战况。The clear favorite of the raucous crowd was Samsung White, a team of Koreans that tore through the playoffs. The throng of fans erupted early on, when a Samsung White player wielded a spear to kill a player from the Star Horn Royal Club, a team of three Chinese players and two Koreans. Samsung White went on to win the championship and million in prize money.喧闹的观众最喜欢的显然是三星White队,这韩国战队在季后赛中一路过关斩将。三星White队的一名选手挥舞长矛要杀死皇族电子竞技俱乐部(Star Horn Royal Club)的一名玩家时,一大群游戏迷早早地就欢呼了起来。皇族战队由三名中国选手和两名韩国选手组成。三星White队最终赢得比赛的冠军,并获得了100万美元(约合612万元人民币)的奖金。;Pro gaming exists in its current form and size in large part thanks to the people who made it possible in South Korea,; said Manuel Schenkhuizen, a Dutch pro gamer. ;Other countries took years to catch up and are to this date trying to mimic some of their successes.;“职业游戏竞技能够达到现有的形式和规模,在很大程度上归功于韩国人,他们让这成为可能,”荷兰职业玩家曼纽尔·斯亨克黑曾(Manuel Schenkhuizen)说。“其他国家花了数年时间追赶,到现在,也一直在努力模仿他们的一些成功模式。”The prowess of the country#39;s e-sports players is a point of national pride. Recently there has even been hand-wringing about Samsung White#39;s not winning dominantly enough in an earlier round of the championship tournament, when it lost one of four games to Team SoloMid, a North American team.韩国电子体育选手技艺高超,举国为之骄傲。最近,三星White队没能以压倒性的优势在较早的一轮比赛中取胜,而是输掉了四场比赛中的一场,令韩国玩家扼腕叹息。那一场比赛中取胜的是来自北美的Team SoloMid队。Last week, people at one of the many Internet cafes here, known as a PC bang, debated how the League of Legends tournament would conclude. One ninth grader, Han Song-wook, said he had followed the rise of Samsung White for two years, in part because of the team#39;s aggressive play and creative, bold moves.首尔有很多网吧,上周在其中一家网吧里,玩家都在讨论英雄联盟锦标赛会出现什么结果。初三学生韩颂旭(Han Song-wook,音译)表示,他过去两年一直追随三星White队,看着他们慢慢崛起,部分原因是该队打法积极强硬,行动大胆,有创造力。;Even back then I saw they had potential,; he said. ;Their moves were great.;“当时我就觉得他们有潜力,”他说。“他们的行动太棒了。”Though gamers and industry insiders have different theories about how e-sports became so popular in South Korea, nearly all versions start in the late 1990s.虽然游戏玩家和业内人士对电子体育在韩国如此受欢迎的发展历程有不同的看法,但是几乎所有人都表示,电子体育始于上世纪90年代末期。At the time, in response to the Asian financial crisis, the South Korean government focused on telecommunications and Internet infrastructure. By 2000, a vibrant community of gamers emerged, largely thanks to PC bangs that used the new connections. The clubs acted as a sort of neighborhood basketball court where gamers could test their skills.当时,为了应对亚洲金融危机,韩国政府开始注重发展电信及互联网基础设施。到2000年的时候,出现了一个活跃的游戏玩家群体,这在很大程度上归功于依靠新的网络连接产生的网吧。网吧就像是社区中的篮球场,每个玩家可以在那里一试身手。The government also became involved, creating the Korean E-Sports Association to manage e-sports. Cheap television stations took off as well, a result of the new infrastructure, and it was only natural that one, then more, would focus on e-sports.政府也参与其中,成立了韩国电子竞技协会(Korean E-Sports Association,简称KeSPA),负责电子竞技体育的管理工作。随着新基础设施的建成,运营成本低廉的电视台也开始流行起来。自然而然地,越来越的电视台开始关注电子体育。About a decade ago, companies began to see the promise in sponsoring e-sports stars. Before long the companies, like Samsung, the giant technology company, and CJ Games, one of Korea#39;s most successful game developers, were sponsoring teams that lived in communal houses and trained 12 hours a day.大约十年前,企业看到了资助电子体育明星的前景。不久之后,技术巨头三星,以及韩国最成功的游戏开发商CJ Games等公司,开始为一些战队提供资助,他们过着集体生活,每天训练12个小时。That professionalism has sp outside Korea, with sponsors putting together training houses for gamers in recent years in the West. Still, few players take the games as seriously as those in South Korea.这种专业化的趋势扩大到了韩国之外,最近几年,西方国家也有赞助商开始出资建立游戏玩家培训机构。不过,几乎没人像韩国玩家那样,把看得那么认真。In part that may be because of the perks of stardom that surround top players here. One of the players on CJ Entus, a team sponsored by CJ Games that came in second in the League of Legends world championship in 2012, recalled how a female fan followed him to competitions for two years taking photos. She ultimately sent him an album of all the shots she had taken.其中的一个原因,可能是顶级玩家在韩国拥有的明星光环。CJ Entus是由CJ Games赞助的战队,在2012年的英雄联盟世锦赛上取得了第二名。CJ Entus的一名玩家回忆说,一名女粉丝曾连续两年追随他的比赛,为他拍照。她最后送了他一本相册,里面是她拍摄的所有照片。;That was nice,; said the blushing player, who goes by the on-screen handle Shy.“那感觉很好,”这名玩家红着脸说道。他的网名叫做“Shy”(“害羞”)。Still, the life of an e-sports star is not all glamour. Players must practice relentlessly, spending their days in front of a screen. While the coach of CJ Entus, Kang Hyun-jong, said he tried to encourage players to enjoy themselves, the real goal was clear.不过,“电子体育”明星的生活也不总是那么刺激。玩家们必须日复一日地坐在屏幕前,坚持不懈地练习。CJ Entus的教练康铉中(Kang Hyun-jong,音译)说,他试图鼓励玩家去享受自己,但真正的目标非常清楚。;The best way for players to enjoy themselves is to know how to win,; he said.“玩在其中的最好办法,就是知道如何获胜,”他说。But the monomania of gamers here has also led to concerns about addiction and the potential harm caused by spending too much time playing games. Occasionally, news articles report on a gamer#39;s dying of exhaustion in a PC bang after playing for days without rest. A law requires the clubs to force children under 18 to leave after 10 p.m.但韩国游戏玩家的狂热也引发了关于网瘾以及长期玩游戏的潜在危害的担忧。游戏玩家为了玩游戏数日不休导致猝死的报道不时会出现在媒体上。韩国的法律规定,晚上10点后,俱乐部必须要求18岁以下的青少年离开。Jun Byung-hun, a South Korean National Assembly member and the head of the country#39;s e-sports governance body, KeSPA, said there was still a lot of ignorance from older generations about gaming. He had pushed for moderation in the drive to regulate gaming.韩国国会议员、KeSPA会长田炳宪(Jun Byung-hun)说,年龄较大的人仍然对极其缺乏了解。在对游戏行业进行监管的过程中,他强调干预要适度。;In Korea, games are the barometer of the generation gap,; he said in an interview. Parents view games as distractions from studying, he said, while children see them as an important part of their social existence. Mr. Jun is promoting new educational guidelines that encourage schools to warn students about addiction, while also helping parents better understand gaming.“在韩国,游戏是代沟的缩影,”他接受采访时说。家长们认为游戏分散了孩子学习的精力,他说,而孩子们则将游戏看做社交存在的重要部分。田炳宪正在推广新的教育指导方针,让学校提醒学生不要痴迷于游戏,同时帮助家长们更好地了解游戏。;The best way to avoid addiction is for families to play games together,; he said.“避免游戏成瘾的最好方法,就是全家一起玩,”他说。 /201411/339407。